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Dysphoria (from Greek: δύσφορος (dysphoros), δυσ-, difficult, and φέρειν, to bear) is a profound state of unease or dissatisfaction. In a psychiatric context, dysphoria may accompany depression, anxiety, or agitation. It can also refer to a state of not being comfortable in one's current body, particularly in cases of gender dysphoria. Common reactions to dysphoria include emotional distress, in some cases, even physical distress is seen. The opposite state of mind is known as euphoria.

Contents

In psychiatryEdit

Intense states of distress and unease increase the risk of suicide, as well as being unpleasant in themselves. Relieving dysphoria is therefore a priority of psychiatric treatment. One may treat underlying causes such as depression or bipolar disorder as well as the dysphoric symptoms themselves.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) categorizes specific dysphoria in the obsessive–compulsive spectrum.

Gender dysphoriaEdit

Gender dysphoria is discomfort, unhappiness, or distress due to one's gender or physical sex. The current edition (DSM-5) of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders uses the term "gender dysphoria" in preference to "gender identity disorder".[1]

Related conditionsEdit

The following conditions may include dysphoria as a symptom:

Drug-induced (dysphoriants)Edit

Some drugs can produce dysphoria, including κ-opioid receptor agonists like salvinorin A (the active constituent of the hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum), butorphanol, and pentazocine,[7] μ-opioid receptor antagonists such as naltrexone and nalmefene,[8] and antipsychotics like haloperidol and chlorpromazine (via blockade of dopamine receptors),[9] among others. Depressogenic and/or anxiogenic drugs may also be associated with dysphoria.

In popular cultureEdit

Against Me! released the album Transgender Dysphoria Blues in which the lead singer Laura Jane Grace shares her experiences of gender dysphoria.[10]

Shane Neilson released a book of poetry entitled Dysphoria (The Porcupine's Quill, 2017) in which he explores the experience of dysphoria.[11]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Fraser, L; Karasic, D; Meyer, W; Wylie, K (2010). "Recommendations for Revision of the DSM Diagnosis of Gender Identity Disorder in Adults". International Journal of Transgenderism. 12 (2): 80–85. doi:10.1080/15532739.2010.509202. 
  2. ^ Abbess, John F. "Glossary of terms in the field of psychiatry and neurology". Archived from the original on 2007-07-18. Retrieved 2006-11-18. 
  3. ^ Borderline personality disorder
  4. ^ Lyubomirsky, S.; Kasri, F.; Zehm, K. (2003). "Dysphoric rumination impairs concentration on academic tasks". Cognitive Therapy and Research. 27 (3): 309–330. doi:10.1023/A:1023918517378. 
  5. ^ Rosa RR, Bonnet MH (2000). "Reported chronic insomnia is independent of poor sleep as measured by electroencephalography". Psychosom Med. 62 (4): 474–82. PMID 10949091. 
  6. ^ Chapman CR, Gavrin J (June 1999). "Suffering: the contributions of persistent pain". Lancet. 353 (9171): 2233–7. PMID 10393002. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(99)01308-2. 
  7. ^ Thomas L. Lemke; David A. Williams (24 January 2012). Foye's Principles of Medicinal Chemistry. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 682–683. ISBN 978-1-60913-345-0. 
  8. ^ Joyce H. Lowinson (2005). Substance Abuse: A Comprehensive Textbook. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 648–. ISBN 978-0-7817-3474-5. 
  9. ^ Wu, Hanjing Emily; Okusaga, Olaoluwa O. (2014). "Antipsychotic Medication-Induced Dysphoria: Its Meaning, Association with Typical vs. Atypical Medications and Impact on Adherence". Psychiatric Quarterly. 86 (2): 199–205. ISSN 0033-2720. doi:10.1007/s11126-014-9319-1. 
  10. ^ Thompson, Stephen. "First Listen: Against Me!, 'Transgender Dysphoria Blues'" NPR. NPR, 12 Jan. 2014. Web. 27 May 2014
  11. ^ "[1]"

ReferencesEdit