An adjustment disorder (AjD) occurs when an individual has significant difficulty adjusting to or coping with a significant psychosocial stressor. The maladaptive response usually involves otherwise normal emotional and behavioral reactions that manifest more intensely than usual (taking into account contextual and cultural factors), causing marked distress, preoccupation with the stressor and its consequences, and functional impairment.
|Specialty||Psychiatry, clinical psychology|
|Complications||Suicide; Progression to more serious psychiatric disorders, e.g., PTSD or Major Depressive Disorder.|
|Usual onset||Theoretically, within one to three months after a stressful event.|
|Duration||Theoretically, up to six months unless the stressor or its consequences continue.|
|Types||Mild, moderate, severe.|
|Risk factors||History of mental disorder; low social support.|
|Differential diagnosis||Rule out PTSD, Depressive Disorders, & Anxiety Disorders.|
|Treatment||Psychotherapy; bibliotherapy; structured paraprofessional help.|
|Prognosis||Relatively good compared to many other mental disorders, but severity varies.|
Diagnosis of AjD is quite common; there is an estimated incidence of 5–21% among psychiatric consultation services for adults. Adult women are diagnosed twice as often as are adult men. Among children and adolescents, girls and boys are equally likely to receive this diagnosis.:681 AjD was introduced into the mental disorders classification systems almost 30 years ago, but similar syndromes were recognized for many years before that.
Signs and symptomsEdit
Some emotional signs of adjustment disorder are: sadness, hopelessness, lack of enjoyment, crying spells, nervousness, anxiety, desperation, feeling overwhelmed and thoughts of suicide, performing poorly in school/work etc.
Common characteristics of AjD include mild depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and traumatic stress symptoms or a combination of the three. According to the DSM-5, there are six types of AjD, which are characterized by the following predominant symptoms: depressed mood, anxiety, mixed depression and anxiety, disturbance of conduct, mixed disturbance of emotions and conduct, and unspecified. However, the criteria for these symptoms are not specified in greater detail. AjD may be acute or chronic, depending on whether it lasts more or less than six months. According to the DSM-5, if the AjD lasts less than six months, then it may be considered acute. If it lasts more than six months, it may be considered chronic. Moreover, the symptoms cannot last longer than six months after the stressor(s), or its consequences, have terminated.:679 However, the stress-related disturbance does not only exist as an exacerbation of a pre-existing mental disorder.
Unlike major depression, the disorder is caused by an outside stressor and generally resolves once the individual is able to adapt to the situation. The condition is different from anxiety disorder, which lacks the presence of a stressor, or post-traumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder, which usually are associated with a more intense stressor.
Suicidal behavior is prominent among people with AjD of all ages, and up to one-fifth of adolescent suicide victims may have an adjustment disorder. Bronish and Hecht (1989) found that 70% of a series of patients with AjD attempted suicide immediately before their index admission and they remitted faster than a comparison group with major depression. Asnis et al. (1993) found that AjD patients report persistent ideation or suicide attempts less frequently than those diagnosed with major depression. According to a study on 82 AjD patients at a clinic, Bolu et al. (2012) found that 22 (26.8%) of these patients were admitted due to suicide attempt, consistent with previous findings. In addition, it was found that 15 of these 22 patients chose suicide methods that involved high chances of being saved. Henriksson et al. (2005) states statistically that the stressors are of one-half related to parental issues and one-third in peer issues.
One hypothesis about AjD is that it may represent a sub-threshold clinical syndrome.
Those exposed to repeated trauma are at greater risk, even if that trauma is in the distant past. Age can be a factor due to young children having fewer coping resources; children are also less likely to assess the consequences of a potential stressor.
A stressor is generally an event of a serious, unusual nature that an individual or group of individuals experience. The stressors that cause adjustment disorders may be grossly traumatic or relatively minor, like loss of a girlfriend/boyfriend, a poor report card, or moving to a new neighborhood. It is thought that the more chronic or recurrent the stressor, the more likely it is to produce a disorder. The objective nature of the stressor is of secondary importance. Stressors' most crucial link to their pathogenic potential is their perception by the patient as stressful. The presence of a causal stressor is essential before a diagnosis of adjustment disorder can be made.
There are certain stressors that are more common in different age groups:
- Marital conflict
- Financial conflict
- Health issues with oneself, partner or dependent children
- Personal tragedy such as death or personal loss
- Loss of job or unstable employment conditions e.g. corporate takeover or redundancy
Adolescence and childhood:
- Family conflict or parental separation
- School problems or changing schools
- Sexuality issues
- Death, illness or trauma in the family
In a study conducted from 1990 to 1994 on 89 psychiatric outpatient adolescents, 25% had attempted suicide in which 37.5% had misused alcohol, 87.5% displayed aggressive behaviour, 12.5% had learning difficulties, and 87.5% had anxiety symptoms.
The basis of the diagnosis is the presence of a precipitating stressor and a clinical evaluation of the possibility of symptom resolution on removal of the stressor due to the limitations in the criteria for diagnosing AjD. In addition, the diagnosis of AjD is less clear when patients are exposed to stressors long-term, because this type of exposure is associated with AjD and major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).
Some signs and criteria used to establish a diagnosis are important. First, the symptoms must clearly follow a stressor. The symptoms should be more severe than would be expected. There should not appear to be other underlying disorders. The symptoms that are present are not part of a normal grieving for the death of family member or other loved one.
Adjustment disorders have the ability to be self-limiting. Within five years of when they are originally diagnosed, approximately 20–50% of the sufferers go on to be diagnosed with psychiatric disorders that are more serious.
International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), assigns codes to classify diseases, symptoms, complaints, social behaviors, injuries, and such medical-related findings.
ICD-11 classifies Adjustment disorder (6B43) under "Disorders specifically associated with stress".
There has been little systematic research regarding the best way to manage individuals with an adjustment disorder. Because natural recovery is the norm, it has been argued that there is no need to intervene unless levels of risk or distress are high. However, for some individuals treatment may be beneficial. AjD sufferers with depressive or anxiety symptoms may benefit from treatments usually used for depressive or anxiety disorders. One study found that AjD sufferers received similar interventions to those with other psychiatric diagnoses, including psychological therapy and medication.
In addition to professional help, parents and caregivers can help their children with their difficulty adjusting by:
- offering encouragement to talk about their emotions;
- offering support and understanding;
- reassuring the child that their reactions are normal;
- involving the child's teachers to check on their progress in school;
- letting the child make simple decisions at home, such as what to eat for dinner or what show to watch on TV;
- having the child engage in a hobby or activity they enjoy.
Like many of the items in the DSM, adjustment disorder receives criticism from a minority of the professional community as well as those in semi-related professions outside the health-care field. First, there has been criticism of its classification. It has been criticized for its lack of specificity of symptoms, behavioral parameters, and close links with environmental factors. Relatively little research has been done on this condition.
An editorial in the British Journal of Psychiatry described adjustment disorder as being so "vague and all-encompassing… as to be useless," but it has been retained in the DSM-5 because of the belief that it serves a useful clinical purpose for clinicians seeking a temporary, mild, non-stigmatizing label, particularly for patients who need a diagnosis for insurance coverage of therapy.
In the US military there has been concern about its diagnosis in active duty military personnel.
- "Adjustment disorders - Symptoms and causes". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
- Glaesmer, Heide; Romppel, Matthias; Brähler, Elmar; Hinz, Andreas; Maercker, Andreas (2015). "Adjustment disorder as proposed for ICD-11: Dimensionality and symptom differentiation". Psychiatry Research. 229 (3): 940–948. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2015.07.010. PMID 26272020.
- O’Donnell, Meaghan L.; Agathos, James A.; Metcalf, Olivia; Gibson, Kari; Lau, Winnie (16 Jul 2019). "Adjustment Disorder: Current Developments and Future Directions". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 16 (14). 2537. doi:10.3390/ijerph16142537. ISSN 1660-4601. PMC 6678970. PMID 31315203.
- Maercker, Andreas; Lorenz, Louisa (2018). "Adjustment disorder diagnosis: Improving clinical utility". The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry. 19 (sup1): S3–S13. doi:10.1080/15622975.2018.1449967. ISSN 1562-2975. PMID 30204562.
- "6B43 Adjustment disorder". ICD-11 - Mortality and Morbidity Statistics. Retrieved 2019-08-28.
- American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). pp. 271–281.
- Strain, J. J. (2015). Adjustment disorders. Encyclopedia of Psychopharmacology, 36-39.
- Casey, P. (2009). Adjustment Disorder: Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Treatment. CNS drugs, 23(11), 927-938.
- Bisson, Jonathan I.; Sakhuja, Divya (July 2006). "Adjustment disorders". Psychiatry. 5 (7): 240–242. doi:10.1053/j.mppsy.2006.04.004.
- Bronish, T., & Hecht, H. (1989). Validity of adjustment disorder, comparison with major depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 17, 229–236.
- Asnis, G.M.; Friedman, T.A.; Sanderson, W.C.; Kaplan, M.L.; van Praag, H.M.; Harkavy-Friedman, J.M. (January 1993). "Suicidal behavior in adult psychiatric outpatients, I: Description and prevalence". American Journal of Psychiatry. 150 (1): 108–112. doi:10.1176/ajp.150.1.108. PMID 8417551.
- Bolu, A., Doruk, A., Ak, M., Özdemir, B., & Özgen, F. (2012). Suicidal behavior in adjustment disorder patients. Dusunen Adam, 25(1), 58–62.
- Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri; Henriksson, Markus; Lönnqvist, Jouko (May 2005). "Suicidality in adjustment disorder: Clinical characteristics of adolescent outpatients". European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 14 (3): 174–180. doi:10.1007/s00787-005-0457-8. PMID 15959663.
- Powell, Alicia D. (2015). "Grief, Bereavement, and Adjustment Disorders". In Stern, Theodore A.; Fava, Maurizio; Wilens, Timothy E.; et al. (eds.). Massachusetts General Hospital Comprehensive Clinical Psychiatry (2nd ed.). Elsevier. pp. 428–32. ISBN 978-0-323-32899-9.
- Casey, Patricia; Doherty, Anne (2012). "Adjustment disorder: Diagnostic and treatment issues". Psychiatric Times. 29: 43–6.
- Adjustment Disorders at eMedicine
- Casey, Patricia (January 2001). "Adult adjustment disorder: a review of its current diagnostic status". Journal of Psychiatric Practice. 7 (1): 32–40. doi:10.1097/00131746-200101000-00004. PMID 15990499 – via Wolters Kluwer.
- Strain, JJ; Smith, GC; Hammer, JS; McKenzie, DP; Blumenfield, M; Muskin, P; Newstadt, G; Wallack, J; Wilner, A; Schleifer, SS (May 1998). "Adjustment disorder: a multisite study of its utilization and interventions in the consultation-liaison psychiatry setting". General Hospital Psychiatry. 20 (3): 139–49. doi:10.1016/S0163-8343(98)00020-6. PMID 9650031.
- "Adjustment disorders: Lifestyle and home remedies". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- Casey P, Dowrick C, Wilkinson G (December 2001). "Adjustment disorders: fault line in the psychiatric glossary". British Journal of Psychiatry. 179 (6): 479–81. doi:10.1192/bjp.179.6.479. PMID 11731347.
- Fard K, Hudgens RW, Welner A (March 1978). "Undiagnosed psychiatric illness in adolescents: A prospective study and seven-year follow-up". Archives of General Psychiatry. 35 (3): 279–82. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1978.01770270029002. PMID 727886.
- Baumeister, H., & Kufner, K. (2009). It is time to adjust the adjustment disorder category. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 22(4), 409-412.
- "Discharges for adjustment disorder soar". 29 March 2013. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
- First, Michael B., ed. (2014). "Differential Diagnosis by the Trees". DSM-5 Handbook of Differential Diagnosis (1st ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9781585629992.mf02. ISBN 978-1-58562-999-2. OCLC 864759427.
- Casey, P. R., & Strain, J. J. (Eds.). (2015). Trauma-and Stressor-related Disorders: A Handbook for Clinicians. American Psychiatric Pub. ISBN 978-1585625055