Dyatlov Pass incident
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The Dyatlov Pass incident (Russian: Гибель тургруппы Дятлова) refers to the deaths of nine skiers/hikers in the northern Ural Mountains, in the former Soviet Union, between the 1st and 2nd of February, 1959, due to unclear circumstances. The experienced trekking group, who were all from the Ural Polytechnical Institute, had established a camp on the slopes of Kholat Syakhl, in an area now named in honor of the group's leader, Igor Dyatlov. During the night, something caused them to tear their way out of their tents and flee the campsite, all while inadequately dressed for the heavy snowfall and sub-zero temperatures.
The group's tomb at the Mikhailovskoe Cemetery in Yekaterinburg, Russia.
|Native name||Гибель тургруппы Дятлова|
|Date||1–2 February 1959|
|Location||Kholat Syakhl, northern Urals, RSFSR, Soviet Union|
|Participants||Ski hikers from Ural Polytechnical Institute|
|Outcome||Area closed for three years|
|Deaths||9 dead from hypothermia and physical trauma|
After the group's bodies were discovered, an investigation by Soviet Union authorities determined that six had died from hypothermia while the other three showed signs of physical trauma. One victim had a fractured skull; two others had major chest fractures. Additionally, the body of another team member was missing their tongue and eyes. The investigation concluded that an "unknown compelling force" had caused the deaths. Numerous theories have been put forward to account for the unexplained deaths, including animal attacks, hypothermia, avalanche, katabatic winds, infrasound-induced panic, military involvement, or some combination of these.
In 1959, a group was formed for a skiing expedition across the northern Urals in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Soviet Union. Igor Dyatlov, a twenty-three-year-old radio engineering student at the Ural Polytechnical Institute (Уральский политехнический институт, УПИ; now Ural Federal University) was the leader who assembled a group of nine others for the trip, most of whom were fellow students and peers at the university. Each member of the group, which consisted of eight men and two women, were experienced Grade II-hikers with ski tour experience, and would be receiving Grade III certification upon their return. At the time, this was the highest certification available in the Soviet Union, and required candidates to traverse 300 kilometres (190 mi). The goal of the expedition was to reach Otorten (Отортен), a mountain 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) north of the site of the incident. This route, in February, was estimated as Category III, the most difficult.
|Members of expedition|
|Name (English)||Russian name (lit.)||Birthdate||Age||Gender||Notes||Ref.|
|Igor Alekseyevich Dyatlov||Игорь Алексеевич Дятлов||13 January 1936||23||Male||Hypothermia; leader of group|||
|Yuri Nikolayevich Doroshenko||Юрий Николаевич Дорошенко||29 January 1938||21||Male||Hypothermia|||
|Lyudmila Alexandrovna Dubinina||Людмила Александровна Дубинина||12 May 1938||20||Female||Severe chest trauma, eyes missing, tongue missing|||
|Yuri (Georgiy) Alexeyevich Krivonischenko||Юрий (Георгий) Алексеевич Кривонищенко||7 February 1935||23||Male||Hypothermia|||
|Alexander Sergeyevich Kolevatov||Александр Сергеевич Колеватов||16 November 1934||24||Male||Hypothermia|||
|Zinaida Alekseevna Kolmogorova||Зинаида Алексеевна Колмогорова||12 January 1937||22||Female||Hypothermia|||
|Rustem Vladimirovich Slobodin||Рустем Владимирович Слободин||11 January 1936||23||Male||Hypothermia|||
|Nikolai Vladimirovich Thibeaux-Brignolles||Николай Владимирович Тибо-Бриньоль||5 July 1935||23||Male||Fatal skull injury||[a]|
|Semyon (Alexander)[b] Alekseevich Zolotaryov||Семён (Александр) Алексеевич Золотарёв||2 February 1921||38||Male||Severe chest trauma, eyes missing|||
|Yuri Yefimovich Yudin||Юрий Ефимович Юдин||19 July 1937||21||Male||Left expedition on 28 January due to illness; died 27 April 2013 at the age of 75|||
The group arrived by train at Ivdel (Ивдель), a town at the centre of the northern province of Sverdlovsk Oblast in the early morning hours of 25 January 1959. They then took a truck to Vizhai (Вижай) – a lorry village that is the last inhabited settlement to the north. While spending the night in Vizhai, the skiers purchased and ate loaves of bread to keep their energy levels up for the following day's hike.
On 27 January, they began their trek toward Otorten from Vizhai. On 28 January, one of the members, Yuri Yudin, who suffered from several health ailments (including rheumatism and a congenital heart defect) turned back due to knee and joint pain that made him unable to continue the hike. The remaining group of nine people continued the trek.
Diaries and cameras found around their last campsite made it possible to track the group's route up to the day preceding the incident. On 31 January, the group arrived at the edge of a highland area and began to prepare for climbing. In a wooded valley they cached surplus food and equipment that would be used for the trip back. The following day (1 February), the hikers started to move through the pass. It seems they planned to get over the pass and make camp for the next night on the opposite side, but because of worsening weather conditions — snowstorms and decreasing visibility — they lost their direction and deviated west, up towards the top of Kholat Syakhl. When they realised their mistake, the group decided to stop and set up camp there on the slope of the mountain, rather than move 1.5 kilometres (0.93 mi) downhill to a forested area which would have offered some shelter from the elements. Yudin postulated that "Dyatlov probably did not want to lose the altitude they had gained, or he decided to practice camping on the mountain slope."
Search and discoveryEdit
Before leaving, Dyatlov had agreed he would send a telegram to their sports club as soon as the group returned to Vizhai. It was expected that this would happen no later than 12 February, but Dyatlov had told Yudin, before his departure from the group, that he expected to be longer. When the 12th passed and no messages had been received, there was no immediate reaction, as delays of a few days were common with such expeditions. On 20 February the relatives of the travellers demanded a rescue operation and the head of the institute sent the first rescue groups, consisting of volunteer students and teachers. Later, the army and militsiya forces became involved, with planes and helicopters being ordered to join the rescue operation.
On 26 February, the searchers found the group's abandoned and badly damaged tent on Kholat Syakhl. The campsite baffled the search party. Mikhail Sharavin, the student who found the tent, said "the tent was half torn down and covered with snow. It was empty, and all the group's belongings and shoes had been left behind." Investigators said the tent had been cut open from inside. Eight or nine sets of footprints, left by people who were wearing only socks or a single shoe or were even barefoot, could be followed, leading down towards the edge of a nearby woods, on the opposite side of the pass, 1.5 kilometres (0.93 mi) to the north-east. However, after 500 metres (1,600 ft) these tracks were covered with snow. At the forest's edge, under a large siberian pine (in popular parlance it is called "cedar"), the searchers found the visible remains of a small fire. There were the first two bodies, those of Krivonischenko and Doroshenko, shoeless and dressed only in their underwear. The branches on the tree were broken up to five metres high, suggesting that one of the skiers had climbed up to look for something, perhaps the camp. Between the pine and the camp the searchers found three more corpses: Dyatlov, Kolmogorova and Slobodin, who seemed to have died in poses suggesting that they were attempting to return to the tent. They were found separately at distances of 300, 480 and 630 metres from the tree.
Finding the remaining four travellers took more than two months. They were finally found on 4 May under four metres of snow in a ravine 75 metres further into the woods from the pine tree. Three of those four were better dressed than the others, and there were signs that those who had died first had their clothes relinquished to the others. Dubinina was wearing Krivonishenko's burned, torn trousers and her left foot and shin were wrapped in a torn jacket.
A legal inquest started immediately after the first five bodies were found. A medical examination found no injuries that might have led to their deaths, and it was eventually concluded that they had all died of hypothermia. Slobodin had a small crack in his skull, but it was not thought to be a fatal wound.
An examination of the four bodies which were found in May shifted the narrative as to what had occurred during the incident. Three of the ski hikers had fatal injuries: Thibeaux-Brignolles had major skull damage, and both Dubinina and Zolotaryov had major chest fractures. According to Dr. Boris Vozrozhdenny, the force required to cause such damage would have been extremely high, comparable to the force of a car crash. Notably, the bodies had no external wounds associated with the bone fractures, as if they had been subjected to a high level of pressure. However, major external injuries were found on Dubinina, who was missing her tongue, eyes, part of the lips, as well as facial tissue and a fragment of skullbone; she also had extensive skin maceration on the hands. It was claimed that Dubinina was found lying face down in a small stream that ran under the snow and that her external injuries were in line with putrefaction in a wet environment, and were unlikely to be associated with her death.
There was initial speculation that the indigenous Mansi people had attacked and murdered the group for encroaching upon their lands, but investigation indicated that the nature of their deaths did not support this hypothesis; only the hikers' footprints were visible, and they showed no sign of hand-to-hand struggle.
Although the temperature was very low, around −25 to −30 °C (−13 to −22 °F) with a storm blowing, the dead were only partially dressed. Some of them had only one shoe, while others had no shoes or wore only socks. Some were found wrapped in snips of ripped clothes that seemed to have been cut from those who were already dead.
Journalists reporting on the available parts of the inquest files claim that it states:
- Six of the group members died of hypothermia and three of fatal injuries.
- There were no indications of other people nearby on Kholat Syakhl apart from the nine travellers.
- The tent had been ripped open from within.
- The victims had died 6 to 8 hours after their last meal.
- Traces from the camp showed that all group members left the campsite of their own accord, on foot.
- High levels of radiation were found on only one victim’s clothing.
- To dispel the theory of an attack by the indigenous Mansi people, Vozrozhdenny stated that the fatal injuries of the three bodies could not have been caused by another human being, "because the force of the blows had been too strong and no soft tissue had been damaged".
- Released documents contained no information about the condition of the skiers' internal organs.
- There were no survivors of the incident.
At the time the verdict was that the group members had all died because of a compelling natural force. The inquest officially ceased in May 1959 as a result of the absence of a guilty party. The files were sent to a secret archive.
On 12 April 2018, the remains of Zolotarev were exhumed upon the initiative of journalists of the Russian tabloid Komsomolskaya Pravda. Contradictory results were obtained: one of the experts stated that the character of the injuries resembled a person knocked down by a car, and the DNA analysis did not reveal any similarity to the DNA of living relatives. In addition, it turned out that the name Semyon Zolotarev is not on the list of buried at the Ivanovskoye cemetery. Nevertheless, the reconstruction of the face from the exhumed skull agrees with the post-war photographs of Semyon, although journalists express suspicions that another person was hiding under the name of Semyon Zolotarev after the war.
The region was closed to expeditions and hikers for three years after the incident, but is currently accessible.
In February 2019, CNN announced that the Russian authorities were reopening the investigation, although only three possible explanations were being considered: an avalanche, a "snow slab" avalanche, or a hurricane. The possibility of a crime has been completely discounted.
- 12-year-old Yury Kuntsevich, who later became the head of the Yekaterinburg-based Dyatlov Foundation (see below), attended five of the hikers' funerals. He recalled that their skin had a "deep brown tan".
- Another group of hikers (about 50 kilometres (31 mi) south of the incident) reported that they saw strange orange spheres in the sky to the north on the night of the incident. Similar spheres were observed in Ivdel and adjacent areas continually during the period from February to March 1959, by various independent witnesses (including the meteorology service and the military). However, these sightings were not noted in the initial investigation in 1959, and these various independent witnesses only came forward years later.
In 1967, Sverdlovsk writer and journalist Yuri Yarovoi (Russian: Юрий Яровой) published the novel Of the Highest Degree of Complexity, inspired by the incident. Yarovoi had been involved in the search for Dyatlov's group and at the inquest as an official photographer during both the search and the initial stage of the investigation, and so had insight into the events. The book was written during the Soviet era when details of the accident were kept secret and Yarovoi avoided revealing anything beyond the official position and well-known facts. The book romanticised the accident and had a much more optimistic end than the real events – only the group leader was found deceased. Yarovoi's colleagues say that he had alternative versions of the novel, but both were declined because of censorship. Since Yarovoi's death in 1980, all his archives, including photos, diaries and manuscripts, have been lost.
Anatoly Gushchin (Russian: Анатолий Гущин) summarized his research in the book The Price of State Secrets Is Nine Lives (Цена гостайны – девять жизней, Sverdlovsk, 1990) Some researchers criticised the work for its concentration on the speculative theory of a Soviet secret weapon experiment, but its publication led to public discussion, stimulated by interest in the paranormal. Indeed, many of those who had remained silent for thirty years reported new facts about the accident. One of them was the former police officer, Lev Ivanov (Лев Иванов), who led the official inquest in 1959. In 1990, he published an article which included his admission that the investigation team had no rational explanation for the incident. He also stated that, after his team reported that they had seen flying spheres, he then received direct orders from high-ranking regional officials to dismiss this claim.
In 2000, a regional television company produced the documentary film The Mystery of Dyatlov Pass (Тайна перевала Дятлова). With the help of the film crew, a Yekaterinburg writer, Anna Matveyeva (Russian: Анна Матвеева), published a fiction/documentary novella of the same name. A large part of the book includes broad quotations from the official case, diaries of victims, interviews with searchers and other documentaries collected by the film-makers. The narrative line of the book details the everyday life and thoughts of a modern woman (an alter ego of the author herself) who attempts to resolve the case.
Despite its fictional narrative, Matveyeva's book remains the largest source of documentary materials ever made available to the public regarding the incident. In addition, the pages of the case files and other documentaries (in photocopies and transcripts) are gradually being published on a web forum for enthusiastic researchers.
A Dyatlov Foundation was founded in 1999 at Yekaterinburg, with the help of Ural State Technical University, led by Yuri Kuntsevitch (Юрий Кунцевич). The foundation's stated aim is to continue investigation of the case and to maintain the Dyatlov Museum to preserve the memory of the dead hikers. On 1 July 2016, a memorial plaque was inaugurated in Solikamsk in Ural's Perm Region, dedicated to Yuri Yudin (the sole survivor of the expedition group) who died in 2013.
The theory that an avalanche caused the hikers' deaths, while initially popular, has since been questioned. Reviewing the sensationalist "Yeti" hypothesis (see below), American skeptic author Benjamin Radford suggests as more plausible:
"that the group woke up in a panic (...) and cut their way out the tent either because an avalanche had covered the entrance to their tent or because they were scared that an avalanche was imminent (...) (better to have a potentially repairable slit in a tent than risk being buried alive in it under tons of snow). They were poorly clothed because they had been sleeping, and ran to the safety of the nearby woods where trees would help slow oncoming snow. In the darkness of night they got separated into two or three groups; one group made a fire (hence the burned hands) while the others tried to return to the tent to recover their clothing, since the danger had apparently passed. But it was too cold, and they all froze to death before they could locate their tent in the darkness. At some point some of the clothes may have been recovered or swapped from the dead, but at any rate the group of four whose bodies were most severely damaged were caught in an avalanche and buried under 4 metres (13 ft) of snow (more than enough to account for the 'compelling natural force' the medical examiner described). Dubinina's tongue was likely removed by scavengers and ordinary predation."
- The location of the incident did not have any obvious signs of an avalanche having taken place. An avalanche would have left certain patterns and debris distributed over a wide area. The bodies found within a month of the event were covered with a very shallow layer of snow and, had there been an avalanche of sufficient strength to sweep away the second party, these bodies would have been swept away as well; this would have caused more serious and different injuries in the process and would have damaged the tree line.
- Over 100 expeditions to the region were held since the incident, and none of them ever reported conditions that might create an avalanche. A study of the area using up-to-date terrain-related physics revealed that the location was entirely unlikely for such an avalanche to have occurred. The "dangerous conditions" found in another nearby area (which had significantly steeper slopes and cornices) were observed in April and May when the snowfalls of winter were melting. During February, when the incident occurred, there were no such conditions.
- An analysis of the terrain, the slope and the incline indicates that even if there could have been a very specific avalanche that circumvents the other criticisms, its trajectory would have bypassed the tent. It had collapsed laterally but not horizontally.
- Dyatlov was an experienced skier and the much older Semyon Zolotaryov was studying for his Masters Certificate in ski instruction and mountain hiking. Neither of these two men would have been likely to camp anywhere in the path of a potential avalanche.
- Footprint patterns leading away from the tent were inconsistent with someone, let alone a group of 9 people, running in panic from either real or imagined danger. In fact, all the footprints leading away from the tent and towards the woods were consistent with individuals who were walking at a normal pace.
Repeated 2015 investigationEdit
A review of the 1959 investigation’s evidence completed in 2015-2019 by experienced investigators from the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation (ICRF) on request of the families confirmed the avalanche with a number of important details added. First of all, the ICRF investigators (one of them an experienced alpinist) confirmed that the weather on the night of the tragedy was very harsh, with snow storm and temperature falling below -40°C, which wasn't really considered by the 1959 investigators who arrived at the scene of the accident a week later, when weather had much improved and any remains of the snow slide settled down and had been covered with fresh snowfall. The harsh weather at the same time played critical role in the events of the tragic night, which has been reconstructed as follows:
- On 1 February the group arrives at the Kholat Syakhl mountain and erects a large, 9-person tent on an open slope, without any natural barriers, such as forests. On the day and a few preceding days a heavy snowfall continued, with strong wind and frost.
- The group, traversing through the slope and digging in the tent into the snow weakens the snow base. During the night the snow field above the tent starts to slide down, pushing on the tent fabric. The group wakes up and starts evacuation in panic. Some of the attendees were able to put on warm clothes, while some didn't. All escape through a hole in the tent fabric. The whole group goes down the slope and finds a place perceived as safe from the avalanche only 1500 m down, at the forest border.
- Four of the group, only in their underwear and pyjamas, camp at a small fireplace they started at the forest border. Their bodies were found first and confirmed to die from hypothermia.
- Three alpinists, including Dyatlov, attempted to climb back to the tent, possibly to get sleeping bags. They had better clothes than those at the fireplace, but still quite light and their footwear was incomplete. Their bodies were found at various places ranging 300-600 m from the fireplace, in poses suggesting they fell down of exhaustion while trying to climb in deep snow in extremely cold weather.
- Remaining four, equipped with warm clothes and footwear, were apparently trying to find or build a better camping place in the forest further down the slope. Their bodies were found only 70 m from the fireplace, under several meters thick layer of snow and with traumas indicating they fell into a snow hole formed above a stream. These bodies were only found after two months.
According to the ICRF investigators, the factors contributing to the tragedy was extremely bad weather and lack of experience of the group leader in such conditions, which led to selection of a dangerous camping place. After the snow slide, another mistake of the group was to split up, rather than building a temporary camping place down in the forest and trying to survive through the night. Negligence of the 1959 investigators contributed to their report creating more questions than answers and inspiring numerous conspiracy theories.
In 2019, a Swedish-Russian expedition was made to the site, and after investigations they proposed that a violent katabatic wind is a likely explanation for the incident. Katabatic winds are somewhat rare events and can be extremely violent and was implicated in a similar case in Sweden, the accident at Anaris, where 8 hikers perished in 1978 in the aftermath of a katabatic wind. The topography of these locations were noted to be very similar according to the expedition.
A sudden katabatic wind would have made it impossible to remain in the tent, and the most rational course of action would be for the hikers would be to cover the tent with snow and seek shelter among the treeline. There were also a flashlight left turned on on top of the tent, possibly left there intentionally so the hikers could find their way back to the tent once the winds subside. The expedition proposed that the group of hikers constructed two bivouac shelters, one of which collapsed, leaving four of the hikers buried with the violent injuries observed.
Another hypothesis popularised by Donnie Eichar's 2013 book Dead Mountain is that wind going around Kholatsyakal Mountain created a Kármán vortex street, which can produce infrasound capable of inducing panic attacks in humans. According to Eichar's theory, the infrasound generated by the wind as it passed over the top of the Holatchahl mountain was responsible for causing physical discomfort and mental distress in the hikers. Eichar claims that, because of their panic, the hikers were driven to leave the tent by whatever means necessary, and fled down the slope. By the time they were further down the hill, they would have been out of the infrasound's path and would have regained their composure, but in the darkness would be unable to return to their shelter. The traumatic injuries suffered by three of the victims were the result of their stumbling over the ledge of a ravine in the darkness and landing on the rocks at the bottom.
Speculation exists that the campsite fell within the path of a Soviet parachute mine exercise. This theory alleges that the hikers, woken by loud explosions, fled the tent in a shoeless, shell shocked panic and found themselves unable to return for supply retrieval. After some members froze to death attempting to endure the bombardment, others commandeered their clothing only to be fatally injured by subsequent parachute mine concussions. There are indeed records of parachute mines being tested by the Soviet military in the area around the time the hikers were there. Parachute mines detonate while still in the air rather than upon striking the Earth's surface and produce signature injuries similar to those experienced by the hikers: Heavy internal damage with comparably less external trauma. The theory coincides with reported sightings of glowing, orange orbs floating or falling in the sky within the general vicinity of the hikers, potentially military aircraft or descending parachute mines. This theory (among others) uses scavenging animals to explain Dubinina's injuries. Some speculate the bodies were unnaturally manipulated due to characteristic livor mortis markings discovered during autopsy, as well as burns to hair and skin. Photographs of the tent allegedly show that it was apparently erected incorrectly, something the experienced hikers were unlikely to have done.
A similar theory alleges the testing of radiological weapons, and is partly based on the discovery of radioactivity on some of the clothing as well as the bodies being described by relatives as having orange skin and grey hair. However, radioactive dispersal would have affected all of the hikers and equipment instead of just some of it, and the skin and hair discolouration can be explained by a natural process of mummification after three months of exposure to the cold and winds. Furthermore, the initial suppression of files regarding the group's disappearance by Soviet authorities is sometimes mentioned as evidence of a cover-up, but the concealment of information regarding domestic incidents was standard procedure in the USSR and therefore far from peculiar. And by the late 1980s, all Dyatlov files had been released in some manner.
International Science Times posited that the hikers' deaths were caused by hypothermia, which can induce a behaviour known as paradoxical undressing in which hypothermic subjects remove their clothes in response to perceived feelings of burning warmth. It is undisputed that six of the nine hikers died of hypothermia. However, others in the group appear to have acquired additional clothing (from those who had already died) which suggests that they were of a sound enough mind to try to add layers.
The 2014 Discovery Channel special Russian Yeti: The Killer Lives explored the theory that the Dyatlov group was killed by a menk or Russian Yeti. The show begins with the premise that the skiers' injuries were such that only a creature with superhuman strength could have caused them. The episode concluded with there being no solid evidence for its claims; however, in the interview with the two members of a search party who got on to the scene first, they claim that they saw footprints larger than those of a human and that those footprints were never included in an official Soviet government report, and additionally that after months of trying to gain access, a Russian documentary narrator Maria finally got access to a classified Soviet military document regarding the investigation of the missing hikers in which the start date of the investigation is 6 February, but the hikers were reported missing almost 10 days later on 15-16 February, which could indicate a Soviet military cover-up operation. The documentary also claims that the howling sound they've recorded during their cave and forest expedition does not belong to any known animal species.
Keith McCloskey, who has researched the incident for many years and has appeared in several TV documentaries on the subject, travelled to the Dyatlov Pass in 2015 with Yury Kuntsevich of the Dyatlov Foundation and a group. At the Dyatlov Pass he noted:
- There were wide discrepancies in distances quoted between the two possible locations of the snow shelter where Dubinina, Kolevatov, Zolotarev and Thibault-Brignolles were found. One location was approximately 80 to 100 metres from the pine tree where the bodies of Doroshenko and Krivonischenko were found and the other suggested location was so close to the tree that anyone in the snow shelter could have spoken to those at the tree without raising their voices to be heard. This second location also has a rock in the stream where Dubinina's body was found and is the more likely location of the two. However, the second suggested location of the two has a topography that is closer to the photos taken at the time of the search in 1959.
- The location of the tent near the ridge was found to be too close to the spur of the ridge for any significant build-up of snow to cause an avalanche. Furthermore, the prevailing wind blowing over the ridge had the effect of blowing snow away from the edge of the ridge on the side where the tent was. This further reduced any build-up of snow to cause an avalanche. This aspect of the lack of snow on the top and near the top of the ridge was pointed out by Sergey Sogrin in 2010
McCloskey also noted:
- Lev Ivanov's boss, Evgeny Okishev (Deputy Head of the Investigative Department of the Sverdlovsk Oblast Prosecution Office), was still alive in 2015 and had given an interview to former Kemerovo prosecutor Leonid Proshkin in which Okishev stated that he was arranging another trip to the Pass to fully investigate the strange deaths of the last four bodies when Deputy Prosecutor General Urakov arrived from Moscow and ordered the case shut down.
- Evgeny Okishev also stated in his interview with Leonid Proshkin that Klinov, head of the Sverdlovsk Prosecutor's Office, was present at the first post mortems in the morgue and spent three days there. Something Okishev regarded as highly unusual and the only time, in his experience, it had happened.
- They were attacked by Mansi or other local tribesmen.
- The local tribesmen were known to be peaceful and there was no track evidence of anyone approaching the tent.
- They were attacked and chased by animal wildlife.
- There were no animal tracks and the group would not have abandoned the relative security of the tent.
- High winds blew one member away, and the others attempted to rescue the person.
- A large experienced group would not have behaved like that, and winds strong enough to blow away people with such force would have also blown away the tent.
- An argument, possibly related to a romantic encounter that left some of them only partially clothed, led to a violent dispute.
- About this, Eichar states that it is "highly implausible. By all indications, the group was largely harmonious and sexual tension was confined to platonic flirtation and crushes. There were no drugs present and the only alcohol was a small flask of medicinal alcohol, found intact at the scene. The group had even sworn off cigarettes for the expedition." Furthermore, a fight could not have left the massive injuries that one body had suffered.
In popular cultureEdit
Popular interest in Russia was revived in the 1990s in the wake of Gushchin's 1990 novel, The Price of State Secrets Is Nine Lives. In 2000, a regional television company produced the documentary film, with a follow-up novella by Anna Matveyeva. Anna Kiryanova wrote a journal-style novel based on a fictionalized account of the incident in 2005.
The incident came to wider attention in popular media outside of Russia in the 2010s.
- Anatoly Gushchin (Анатолий Гущин), The Price of State Secrets Is Nine Lives (Цена гостайны – девять жизней), 1990.
- The Dyatlov Pass Incident (aka Devil's Pass), a film directed by Renny Harlin, was released on 28 February 2013 in Russia and 23 August 2013 in the USA. It follows five American students retracing the steps of the victims, but, being a work of fiction, makes several changes in describing the initial events, e.g. inverting names of victims.
- The incident figures prominently in the 2012 novel City of Exiles by Alec Nevala-Lee.
- Russia's Mystery Files: Episode 2 – The Dyatlov Pass Incident, 28 November 2014, National Geographic.
- The 2015 Polish horror video game Kholat is inspired by the Dead Mountain incident, in which the player goes to Dyatlov Pass in order to trace the steps of the lost expedition, and begins to uncover "the true cause" of the hikers' deaths.
- In Criminal Minds season 13 episode 21, Agent Matt Simmons (played by Daniel Henney), makes reference to the incident when chasing a serial killer who hears The Hum.
- Eichar states that Thibeaux-Brignolles' birthdate was 5 June 1935, while the Dyatlov Pass reference website states he was born on 8 July. Data from Ancestry.com alternatively lists his birthdate as 5 July based on grave records; it is possible Eichar's 5 June claim is a mistake for 5 July.
- The real name of Zolotarev was Semyon, but for unknown reasons he asked to be called "Sasha" and therefore appears under the name Alexander in many memoirs, documents and studies.(Keith 2013, Ch. "The Dyatlov group and Mount Otorten")
- Chivruay Pass incident, a less well known tragedy occurring in 1973, also involving a group of explorers mysteriously dying in the Russian wilderness during the Soviet era
- Eicher 2013, p. 31.
- Eicher 2013, p. 32.
- Eichar 2013, pp. 265.
- "Nikolai Vladimirovich Thibeaux-Brignolles (Kolya)". Dyatlov-Pass. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
- Eichar 2013, pp. 266.
- Дарья Кезина (27 April 2013). "Умер последний дятловец". Rossiyskaya Gazeta. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
- Eichar 2013, p. 90.
- "Yuri Yudin". The Telegraph. 29 January 2013. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
- Eichar 2013, p. 143.
- Eichar 2013, p. 34.
- Osadchuk, Svetlana (19 February 2008). "Mysterious Deaths of 9 Skiers Still Unresolved". St. Petersburg Times. Archived from the original on 26 February 2008. Retrieved 22 January 2016 – via CryptoZooNews, "Ural Mystery" posted by Loren Coleman.
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- Anderson, Launton (2019). Death of Nine: The Dyatlov Pass Mystery. KDP Print. ISBN 978-0-578-44522-9.
- Eichar, Donnie (2013). Dead Mountain: The Untold True Story of the Dyatlov Pass Incident. San Francisco: Chronicle Books. ISBN 978-1-4521-2956-3.
- McCloskey, Keith (2013). Mountain of the Dead: The Dyatlov Pass Incident. The History Press. ISBN 978-0752491486.
- McCloskey, Keith (2016). Journey to Dyatlov Pass: An Explanation of the Mystery. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. ISBN 978-1539583028.
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- McCloskey, Keith Mountain of the Dead: The Dyatlov Pass Incident (The History Press Ltd, 1 July 2013, ISBN 978-0-7524-9148-6)
- Eichar, Donnie Dead Mountain: The True Story of the Dyatlov Pass Incident (Chronicle Books, October 22, 2013, ISBN 1-4521-1274-6)
- Irina Lobatcheva, Vladislav Lobatchev, Amanda Bosworth Dyatlov Pass Keeps Its Secret (Parallel Worlds' Books, August 30, 2013)
- Oss, Svetlana Don't Go There: The Mystery of Dyatlov Pass (CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform Dec 2015 ISBN 978-1517755591)
- Anderson, Launton Death of Nine: The Dyatlov Pass Mystery (KDP Print 9 January 2019, ISBN 978-0-578-44522-9)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dyatlov Pass incident.|
- Full investigation of the case including original documents, autopsy reports, morgue photos and detailed information on possible causes
- Map of the Dyatlov Pass region (sheet P-40-83,84) scale 1:100000 ‹See Tfd›(in Russian)
- Deathly Urals location draws in tourists
- Complete photo gallery including search party photos ‹See Tfd›(in Russian)
- Some photos and text ‹See Tfd›(in Russian)
- Photo gallery including: party photos, photos of some investigator's documents including termination of criminal case act ‹See Tfd›(in Russian)
- The Dyatlov Pass Accident
- Photo-video site with English
- Atlas Obscura article on the Dyatlov Pass Incident
- Death on the trail. Controlled delivery theory by A. Rakitin‹See Tfd›(in Russian)
- https://www.kp.ru/daily/26830/3870457/ the DNA mystery. (in Russian)