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Duke Wen of Qin (Chinese: 秦文公; pinyin: Qín Wén Gōng, died 716 BC) was from 765 to 716 BC the seventh ruler of the Zhou Dynasty Chinese state of Qin that eventually united China to become the Qin Dynasty. His ancestral name was Ying (Chinese: ), and Duke Wen was his posthumous title.[1][2]

Duke Wen of Qin
Ruler of Qin
Reign765–716 BC
PredecessorDuke Xiang of Qin
SuccessorDuke Xian of Qin
Died716 BC
HouseHouse of Ying
FatherDuke Xiang of Qin


Duke Wen succeeded his father Duke Xiang of Qin, who died in 766 BC while campaigning against the Quanrong in Qishan.[1] He moved the Qin capital back to Quanqiu (犬丘, also called Xichui, in present-day Li County, Gansu) from Qian (汧, in present-day Long County, Shaanxi), but in 762 BC moved the capital again to the confluence of the Qian and Wei rivers.[2]

In 753 BC Duke Wen established the office of historiographer to record the official history of Qin. In 750 BC he defeated the Rong tribes that were occupying the former Zhou land. He returned the territory east of Qishan to Zhou, and kept the rest for Qin as King Ping of Zhou had promised Duke Wen's father Duke Xiang that Qin could keep the land west of Qishan if they could expel the Rong people. The Qin territory was greatly expanded.[2]


Duke Wen reigned for 50 years. His son, the crown prince, died before him in 718 BC and was given the posthumous title Duke Jing (秦竫公). Duke Wen died two years later, and was succeeded by Duke Jing's son, his grandson Duke Xian of Qin.[2]


  1. ^ a b Sima Qian. 秦本纪 [Annals of Qin]. Records of the Grand Historian (in Chinese). Retrieved 1 May 2012.
  2. ^ a b c d Han, Zhaoqi (2010). "Annals of Qin". Annotated Shiji (in Chinese). Zhonghua Book Company. pp. 353–356. ISBN 978-7-101-07272-3.
Duke Wen of Qin
 Died: 716 BC
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Duke Xiang of Qin
Duke of Qin
765–716 BC
Succeeded by
Duke Xian of Qin