Duke Huan of Qin

Duke Huan of Qin (Chinese: 秦桓公; pinyin: Qín Huán Gōng, died 577 BC) was from 603 to 577 BC the seventeenth ruler of the Zhou Dynasty state of Qin that eventually united China to become the Qin Dynasty. His ancestral name was Ying (), and Duke Huan was his posthumous title. Duke Huan succeeded his father Duke Gong of Qin, who died in 604 BC, as ruler of Qin.[1][2]

Duke Huan of Qin
Ruler of Qin
Reign603–577 BC
PredecessorDuke Gong of Qin
SuccessorDuke Jing of Qin
Died577 BC
HouseHouse of Ying
FatherDuke Gong of Qin

In 578 BC, Qin suffered a major defeat at the hand of the State of Jin. Duke Li of Jin accused Qin of treachery and personally led an alliance of eight states (Jin, Qi, Song, Wey, Zheng, Cao, Zhu, and Teng) to attack Qin. The two sides fought at Masui (in present-day Jingyang County, Shaanxi). Qin was resoundingly defeated and two of its generals were captured, although Duke Xuan of Cao, ruler of Jin's ally Cao, was also killed in the battle.[3]

Duke Huan died after a reign of 27 years. He was succeeded by his son, Duke Jing of Qin.[1][2]


  1. ^ a b Sima Qian. 秦本纪 [Annals of Qin]. Records of the Grand Historian (in Chinese). guoxue.com. Retrieved 1 May 2012.
  2. ^ a b Han, Zhaoqi (2010). "Annals of Qin". Annotated Shiji (in Chinese). Zhonghua Book Company. pp. 400–403. ISBN 978-7-101-07272-3.
  3. ^ Zuo Qiuming (translated by James Legge). "Book VIII. Duke Cheng". Zuo Zhuan (in Chinese and English). University of Virginia. Retrieved 23 April 2012. Chapter XIII.
Duke Huan of Qin
 Died: 577 BC
Regnal titles
Preceded by Duke of Qin
603–577 BC
Succeeded by