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Duke Huan of Jin (simplified Chinese: 晋桓公; traditional Chinese: 晉桓公; pinyin: Jìn Huán Gōng) was from 388 to 369 BC the titular ruler of the State of Jin during the beginning of the Warring States period of ancient China. His ancestral name was Ji, given name Qi, and Duke Huan was his posthumous title recorded in the Bamboo Annals,[1] while the Records of the Grand Historian refers to him as Duke Xiao of Jin (晉孝公).[2]

Qi (頎)
Duke Huan of Jin
Ruler of Jin
Reign388–369 BC
PredecessorDuke Lie of Jin
Successornone, title abolished
Full name
Ancestral name: Ji (姬)
Given name: Qi (頎)
FatherDuke Lie of Jin

Final ruler of JinEdit

Duke Huan succeeded his father, Duke Lie of Jin, who died in 389 BC. By then the once powerful state of Jin had been existing in name only, as virtually all of its territory had been partitioned into the states of Han, Zhao, and Wei, founded by the aristocratic clans of Jin. The Bamboo Annals mentions that in the 20th year of Duke Huan's reign (369 BC), Marquess Cheng of Zhao and Marquess Gong of Han moved Duke Huan to Tunliu, and after that there were no more records of Duke Huan or any other Jin ruler.[1] Modern historians such as Yang Kuan, Ch'ien Mu, and Han Zhaoqi consider 369 BC the final year of Duke Huan and the State of Jin.[3]

Account in ShijiEdit

The Records of the Grand Historian (Shiji), on the other hand, says Duke Xiao reigned for 17 years and was succeeded by his son Jujiu. However, Shiji's account of the last rulers of Jin is often self-contradictory, and historians generally regard the Bamboo Annals as more reliable, since it was unearthed from the tomb of King Xiang (died 296 BC) of the State of Wei, one of the three successor states of Jin. Duke Huan is therefore generally considered the final ruler of Jin.[3]


  1. ^ a b Annals of Wei, Bamboo Annals.
  2. ^ Sima Qian. 晉國世家 [House of Jin]. Records of the Grand Historian (in Chinese). Retrieved 12 April 2012.
  3. ^ a b Han, Zhaoqi (2010). "House of Jin". Annotated Shiji (in Chinese). Zhonghua Book Company. p. 3094. ISBN 978-7-101-07272-3.
Duke Huan of Jin
Cadet branch of the House of Ji
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Duke Lie of Jin
Duke of Jin
388–369 BC
Title abolished