Dogs in the United States
Dogs in the United States have significant popularity and status – they are often treated as family members. Currently, the American Kennel Club is the largest registry of pure breed dogs across the world.
Some of the earliest archaeological traces of the existence of dogs in the United States can be dated back to 9,000 to 35,000 years ago. It is generally held that dogs came to America after crossing from Siberia to Alaska, and it was during this period that the domestication of dogs began in America. The sequence divergence in this clade proposes that dogs originated about 100,000 years ago.
Prior to the modern dog, the dire wolf, known as Canis dirus, occupied North America alongside its evolutionary predecessor, Canis lupus. Both grey wolves, Canis lupus the smaller of the two, are believed to have coexisted for 400,000 years, including the time period at which humans first entered the continent. The earliest example of Canis lupus is the Himalayan wolf, native to Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh (Indian states), Nepal and Tibet. This particular Himalayan wolf is considered to have originated 800,000 years ago.
These early traces, along with others in Eurasia, show a wide habitat for Canis lupus. The dire wolf's habitat was more limited by 10,000 B.C.E., ranging from southern Alberta to Peru before a host of factors accelerated its decline. One of the better recorded events is an estimate of at least 1,646 dire wolves having died at the Rancho La Brea tar pits in southern California. These pits, centers of asphalt accumulation for 25,000 years, are known to have decoyed thousands of animals, quite commonly dire wolves. Information suggests that dire wolf populations were significant around 10,000 B.C.E, but had nearly disappeared by 8,500 years ago. The most recent incidences of the departed canidae are from the western United States in 7500 B.C.E., long after humans crossed the Bering Strait.
A variety of American dog breeds are noted to have been mixed with Spanish and French dog breeds. The European idea of registering dog breeds and breed clubs led to the foundation of Kennel Club in Great Britain in 1873. The American Kennel Club, prevalent in The United States, was highly influenced by this European predecessor. Currently, The American Kennel Club is the largest purebred dog registry, and registers more than 1 million dogs each year. The kennel club also organizes events for purebred dogs.
In economic activitiesEdit
Dogs in the United States have been involved in activities separate from their role in individual families. Dog racing started in 1919 after the opening of a greyhound track in Emeryville, California, and continues to this day. Gambling on such races often occurs and, while it is usually not formally authorized by law, is technically permitted in eighteen states. Of these eighteen, fifteen currently contain dog tracks.
Dogs are also occasionally used in illicit activities, most notably dog fighting. All fifty states have criminalized managing, sponsoring, promoting or operating a dogfighting enterprise or inciting dogs to fight, with dogfighting being a felony in 48 states. Several of those laws specifically exempt the employment of dogs for managing livestock and for hunting.
In 1975, no states had recorded a crime conviction for any dogfighting offenses. By 2000 participation in a dogfighting business was illegal in forty-five states, punishable by fines of up to $150,000 and a maximum amount of 10 years in jail, depending on the state in which the crime was committed. One notable case occurred in 1998, when, during a police raid, about 55 dogs were found in the California home of Cesar Cerda. It was later was determined that Cerda used them for dogfighting. Following a conviction on 63 counts concerning animal cruelty, Cerda was given a jail sentence of 6–7 years.
In 2009, FBI and the Humane Society of Missouri carried out a raid in eight states, in which 407 dogs were collected and an estimated of twenty-six individuals were taken into custody. 17 suspects were found of guilty. This raid is considered as the "biggest Dogfighting raid" in the US.
Due to the popularity of dog ownership, dog parks are now found in nearly every city of the country. This prevalence has led to a few towns, agencies, and others to enforce restrictions, however. Some towns and urban areas don't permit occupants to have certain types of big-sized dogs, while insurance agencies occasionally have similar regulations. Due to these actions, individuals are recommended to find out about local laws and regulations when considering a large canine. Additionally, numerous states have chain or leash laws that oblige canines to be on leash when they are outside.
After a rash of attacks within the mid-1980s, some leading to the deaths of toddlers, several American cities have severely restricted possession of Pit bulls, making them entirely illegal in some cases. These such laws have been termed "breed-specific legislation" and are often successfully challenged within the courts. A minimum of 2 states - Minnesota and Oklahoma - don't enable their municipalities to control possession of dogs in line with breed. Alternatively, the U.S. Supreme Court has refused to review two state supreme court decisions - in Kansas and Ohio - upholding ordinances that ban people from keeping pit bulls. These laws have also faced scrutiny outside of the United States, with the British Veterinary Association, The Kennel Club of London and others have opposed breed specific legislation.
Additional regulations apply to those involved in the breeding or sale of dogs. Much of these regulations come from the Animal Welfare Act (otherwise known as the "AWA"), which has come to be regarded as the acceptable standard for animal treatment. Under the rules set forth by the act, a dog stock breeder should be licensed with the USDA, and is classified a "class A" dealer. This can be outlined partially as someone "whose business involving animals consists solely of animals that are bred and raised on the premises in a closed and stable colony and those animals acquired for the only purpose of maintaining or enhancing the breeding colony .. [,and] any individual who, in commerce for compensation or profit... sells ... any dog... to be used as a pet." In 1971 breeders became subject to standards issued by the USDA for humane handling and care of dogs. Similarly, "class B" dealers should also be licensed and accommodate AWA laws.
These are primarily animal brokers or distributors who don't breed dogs and usually hold them in facilities and negotiate their sale to pet shops. Retail stores that sell dogs are not explicitly mentioned by any federal law, but several state regulations on such sales exists. The final classification under the act is for individuals or business who are involved with displaying animals. Such entities are classified as C class and they are required to hold a Class C license. According to an estimate provided by Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), in 2009 there were about 9,530 facilities provided or licensed under the AWA:
AWA laws for dogs start with general housing standards. According to the act, the facilities at which dogs live are to be frequently maintained, and often cleaned and sanitized. In addition to this, facilities must effectively forestall escape, access by different animals, and injury. Cooling, heating ventilation, lighting, and running potable water are all compulsory, as well as "disposable and drainage systems that are made and operated in order that animal wastes are eliminated and therefore the animals stay dry," per section 3.10. Temperatures in indoor housing should not fall below forty five degrees Fahrenheit or rise higher than eighty five degrees for over four consecutive hours, and dogs should be provided with a daily lighting cycle. Furthermore, different kinds of animals should not be housed alongside other animals of which they are not compatible.
Outside of the AWA, there are additional legal issues pertaining to dogs that are handled by both states and municipalities. The practice of pound seizure (permitting felines and canines to be taken from shelters for research or experimentation) was ordered by three states in 2000, this law established in 2004. Alternatively, twelve states now forbid this practice.
Other practices considered commonplace in the United States are criticized or forbidden abroad. One such instance is the intentional ear cropping and tail docking of specific dogs routinely carried out in the United States for cosmetic purposes. These acts are prohibited in England and few other nations. While not illegal in the United States, both the American Animal Hospital Association and the American Veterinary Medical Association are formally opposed to the ear cropping and tail docking of dogs.
Notably, many dogs in the country safely receive vaccinations on an annual basis. Since the 1950s, preventative measures have been taken against rabies for both domesticated and wild dogs. Such measures have eliminated canine rabies from the United States.
Complementing internal efforts, dogs entering the country can be subjected to inspection, most significantly dogs being imported from a country where rabies is present. In the event that a dog is brought over from a country determined to be "rabies free" by the World Health Organization, an inspection is not required.
The dog population experienced relative stability from 1987 to 1996, before seeing a yearly increase of 3-4% since that time. In 2000, there were 68 million dogs in the country, and by 2017 that estimate had grown to 90 million registered as pets, with about 40% of American households owning a dog.
In 2012, there were 83.3 million dogs and about 47% of households had a dog. 70% of the owners had a dog, 20% of the owners had two dogs, and 10% of the owners had three or more dogs. In 2017 there was an average of 1.5 pet dogs per household.
Fatal dog attacksEdit
There are a number of dog breeds that originated in the United States.
- Alaskan Husky
- Alaskan Klee Kai
- Alaskan Malamute
- American Bulldog
- American Cocker Spaniel
- American English Coonhound
- American Foxhound
- American Hairless Terrier
- American Pit Bull Terrier
- American Staffordshire Terrier
- American Water Spaniel
- Australian Shepherd
- Black and Tan Coonhound
- Black and Tan Virginia Foxhound
- Black Mouth Cur
- Blue Lacy
- Bluetick coonhound
- Boston Terrier
- Boykin Spaniel
- Carolina Dog
- Catahoula Bulldog
- Catahoula Cur
- Chesapeake Bay Retriever
- Chinook (dog)
- English Shepherd
- Feist (dog)
- Hare Indian Dog
- Hawaiian Poi Dog
- King Shepherd
- Leavitt Bulldog
- Longhaired Whippet
- Majestic Tree Hound
- McNab dog
- Miniature American Shepherd
- Miniature Australian Shepherd
- Mountain Cur
- Old Time Farm Shepherd
- Olde English Bulldogge
- Pit bull
- Plott Hound
- Rat Terrier
- Redbone Coonhound
- Salish Wool Dog
- Shiloh Shepherd Dog
- Silken Windhound
- Stephens Cur
- Swinford Bandog
- Teddy Roosevelt Terrier
- Toy Fox Terrier
- Toy Manchester Terrier
- Treeing Cur
- Treeing Tennessee Brindle
- Treeing Walker Coonhound
- Trigg Hound
- White Shepherd
- Ballantine, Jeanne H.; Spade, Joan Z. (4 April 2011). Schools and Society: A Sociological Approach to Education. Pine Forge Press. pp. 80–. ISBN 978-1-4129-7924-5.
- Jennifer P. Terrell. Pet Health Care Insurance. Clinton Gilkie. p. 2. GGKEY:ZYKP1E98AXG.
- Miklósi, Ãdám. Dog Behaviour, Evolution, and Cognition. Oxford University Press. p. 241.
- Lawlor, Laurie. This Tender Place: The Story of a Wetland Year. Terrace. p. 31.
- "'A Dog's History of America' (washingtonpost.com)". The Washington Post. Washington DC: WPC. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
- Feldhamer, George A.; Thompson, Bruce C.; Chapman, Joseph A. (21 October 2003). Wild Mammals of North America: Biology, Management, and Conservation. JHU Press. p. 483. ISBN 978-0-8018-7416-1.
- Jhala, Y.; Sharma, D. K. (2004). "The Ancient Wolves of India" (PDF). International Wolf. 14 (2): 15–16. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-04-21.
- Aggarwal, R. K.; Kivisild, T.; Ramadevi, J.; Singh, L. (2007). "Mitochondrial DNA coding region sequences support the phylogenetic distinction of two Indian wolf species" (PDF). Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research. 45 (2): 163–172. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0469.2006.00400.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-02-05.
- Hampton, Bruce (1997). The Great American Wolf. MacMillan. p. 19.
- Schwartz, Marion (October 1998). A History of Dogs in the Early Americas. Yale University Press. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-300-07519-9.
- "A History of Dogs in the Early Americas". The New York Times. New York: NYTC. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
- D. Cummins, Bryan (2013). Our Debt to the Dog: How the Domestic Dog Helped Shape Human Societies. Carolina Academic Press. pp. 85–86.
- Palika, Liz. The Howell Book of Dogs: The Definitive Reference to 300 Breeds and Varieties. Wiley. p. 290.
- Hartley, Oliver. Hunting Dogs: Describes in a Practical Manner the Training, Handling, Treatment, Breeds, Etc., Best Adapted for Night Hunting as Well as Gun Dogs for Daylight Sport. Harding. p. 34.
- Biniok, Janice (January 2009). The Poodle. Eldorado Ink. p. 26. ISBN 978-1-932904-48-2.
- "dog racing (sport) -- Encyclopædia Britannica". Retrieved 23 August 2014.
- William Norman Thompson (2001). Gambling in America: An Encyclopedia of History, Issues, and Society. ABC-CLIO. p. 93. ISBN 978-1-57607-159-5.
- Abigail Perdue; Randall Lockwood. Animal Cruelty and Freedom of Speech: When Worlds Collide. Purdue University Press. p. 203.
- Curnutt, Jordan (1 January 2001). Animals and the Law: A Sourcebook. ABC-CLIO. pp. 120–290. ISBN 978-1-57607-147-2.
- RANKING OF STATE DOGFIGHTING LAWS
- "Sentence criticized". 5 July 2002.
- Group, Vibe Media (November 2000). Vibe. Vibe Media Group. p. 64.
- Danielle Sapse; Lawrence Kobilinsky (2011). Forensic Science Advances and Their Application in the Judiciary System. CRC Press. p. 271.
- "To pull off the biggest pit bull fighting bust in U.S. history, investigators went deep undercover. So did their dogs". 1 September 2010.
- 350 Dogs Seized In Biggest Dogfighting Raid in US History. 2009-08-08.
- Mehus-Roe, Kristin (2009). Canine Sports & Games: Great Ways to Get Your Dog Fit and Have Fun Together!. Storey Publishing. p. 40.
- Hart, Joyce (1 September 2007). Big Dogs. Marshall Cavendish. pp. 15–38. ISBN 978-0-7614-2707-0.
- 11 Riskiest Dog Breeds for Homeowners and Renters. 30 May 2012.
- Pure-bred Dogs, American Kennel Gazette. American Kennel Club. December 1989. p. 5.
- Idowu, Arike (August 2009). Soul Reflections: My Poetic Journey. Tenisha Idowu. pp. 6–. ISBN 978-1-4486-5218-1.
- Curnutt, Jordan (1 January 2001). Animals and the Law: A Sourcebook. ABC-CLIO. pp. 285–286. ISBN 978-1-57607-147-2.
- Turner, Jacky (12 August 2010). Animal Breeding, Welfare and Society. Routledge. p. 137. ISBN 978-1-136-54187-2.
- Licensing and Registration Under the Animal Welfare Act Archived June 16, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats in Research". Retrieved 21 August 2014.
- Shames, Lisa (January 2011). Animal Welfare: USDA¿s Oversight of Dealers of Random Source Dogs and Cats Would Benefit from Additional Management Information and Analysis. DIANE Publishing. p. 4–. ISBN 978-1-4379-4027-5.
- Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Guidebook
- "GAO-10-945, Animal Welfare USDA's Oversight of Dealers of Random Source Dogs and Cats Would Benefit from Additional Management Information and Analysis". Retrieved 21 August 2014.
- "Laws and Regulations - Animal Use in Research". Retrieved 20 August 2014.
- "Final Rules: Animal Welfare; 9 CFR Part 3 - Animal Welfare Information Center". Retrieved 20 August 2014.
- USDA Compliance Inspections
- Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats in Research. National Academies Press. 2009. p. 20.
- Fox, Dr. Michael W. Dog Body, Dog Mind: Exploring Canine Consciousness and Total Well-Being. Globe Pequot. p. 160. ISBN 978-1-59921-661-4.
- Rugh, Karla S. (2009). Miniature Schnauzers: Everything about Purchase, Care, Nutrition, and Behavior. Barron's Educational Series. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-7641-4245-1.
- Guidelines for the Treatment, Investigation, and Control of Animal Bites. DIANE Publishing. 1 September 1993. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-7881-0135-9.
- E. Greene, Craig (2013). Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 190–196.
- Alfred S. Evans; Richard A. Kaslow. Viral Infections of Humans: Epidemiology and Control. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 667.
- Public Health Parts 1 to 399. Government Printing Office, Office of the Federal Register (U S ). p. 477.
- Gompper, Matthew E. (17 October 2013). Free-Ranging Dogs and Wildlife Conservation. OUP Oxford. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-19-164011-7.
- "Number of dogs in the United States from 2000 to 2017 (in millions)". Statista. Retrieved December 30, 2017.
- Morey, Darcy (12 April 2010). Dogs: Domestication and the Development of a Social Bond. Cambridge University Press. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-521-76006-5.
- "U.S. Pet Ownership and Shelter Population Estimates". The Humane Society of the United States. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
- "Pets by the numbers". Animal Sheltering Online. The Humane Society of the United States. Retrieved December 30, 2017.
- Langley, Ricky L. (March 2009). "Human Fatalities Resulting From Dog Attacks in the United States, 1979–2005". Wilderness & Environmental Medicine. 20 (1): 19–25. doi:10.1580/08-WEME-OR-213.1.
- Sacks, Jeffrey J., MD, MPH; Sinclair, Leslie, DVM; Gilchrist, Julie, MD; Golab, Gail C., PhD, DVM; Lockwood, Randall, PhD. (September 15, 2000). "Breeds of dogs involved in fatal human attacks in the United States between 1979 and 1998" (PDF). JAVMA. 217 (6): 836–40. doi:10.2460/javma.2000.217.836. PMID 10997153. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-11.