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Discovery Seamounts are a chain of seamounts in the Southern Atlantic Ocean, which include the Discovery Seamount. The seamounts lie 850 kilometres (530 mi) east of Gough Island and once rose above sea level. Various volcanic rocks as well as glacial dropstones and sediments have been dredged from the seamounts.

Discovery Seamounts
Location
LocationSouthern Atlantic Ocean
Coordinates42°00′S 0°12′E / 42°S 0.2°E / -42; 0.2[1]Coordinates: 42°00′S 0°12′E / 42°S 0.2°E / -42; 0.2[1]

The Discovery Seamounts appear to be a volcanic seamount chain controlled by the Discovery hotspot, which had its starting point either in the ocean, Cretaceous kimberlite fields in southern Namibia or the Karoo-Ferrar large igneous province. The seamounts formed between 41 and 35 million years ago; presently the hotspot is thought to lie southwest of the seamounts, where there are geological anomalies in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge that may reflect the presence of a neighbouring hotspot.

Name and discoveryEdit

Discovery Seamount was discovered in 1936 by the research ship RRS Discovery II[2] and was originally named Discovery Bank[3] by the crew of a German research ship, RV Schwabenland. The seamount received another name, Discovery Tablemount, in 1963. In 1993 the name "Discovery Bank" was transferred by the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans to another seamount at Kerguelen, leaving the name "Discovery Seamounts" for the seamounts.[4]

Geography and geomorphologyEdit

The Discovery Seamounts are a group of seamounts[5] 850 kilometres (530 mi) east of Gough Island[2] and southwest from Cape Town[6] which extend over an east-west region of over 611 kilometres (380 mi) length.[3] The seamounts rise over 4 kilometres (2.5 mi)[7] to depths of 400–500 metres (1,300–1,600 ft) and have the shape of guyots;[8] this implies that they formerly rose above sea level,[9] guyots form when islands are eroded to a flat plateau that is then submerged through thermal subsidence of the lithosphere.[10] The shallowest peak reached by a seamount from the group is a depth of 426 metres (1,398 ft),[11] although a depth of 389 metres (1,276 ft) has been reported for Discovery Seamount also.[12] These seamounts are also referred to as the Discovery Rise and subdivided into a northwestern and a southeastern trend.[13]

The largest of these seamounts is named Discovery Seamount,[1] which given its shape might once have been an island.[14] The seamount is covered with fossil-containing sediments,[3] which have been used to infer paleoclimate conditions in the region during the Pleistocene.[15] Some of the sediment appears to be ice-rafted debris,[16] and other evidence has been used to postulate that the seamount subsided by about 0.5 kilometres (0.31 mi) during the late Pleistocene.[17] Another member of the Discovery Seamounts has been christened Shannon Seamount.[18]

The crust underneath Discovery Seamount is about 67 million years old, thus of late Cretaceous age.[14] A fracture zone, thus a site of crustal weakness, is located nearby.[19]

GeologyEdit

The Southern Atlantic Ocean contains a number of volcanic systems such as the Discovery Seamounts, the Rio Grande Rise, the Shona Ridge and the Walvis Ridge which are commonly attributed to hotspots,[5] although this interpretation has been challenged.[1] The hotspot origin of Discovery and the Walvis-Tristan da Cunha seamount chains was first proposed in 1972.[2] In the case of the Shona Ridge and the Discovery Seamounts, the theory postulates that they formed as the African Plate moved over the Shona hotspot and the Discovery hotspot.[20]

It is not clear if a Discovery Hotspot exists, nor whether it is linked in any way to Gough Island.[1] The formation of the Discovery Seamounts may instead have been caused by ascent of magma along a fracture zone or other crustal weakness.[21] If the hotspot does exist, it would have to be located southwest of the Discovery Seamounts[13] where low seismic velocity anomalies have been detected in the mantle.[22] The Discovery Seamounts almost wane out in that direction although the it has been proposed that the Little Ridge close to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge may be their continuation.[23] The Discovery Ridge close to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge[24] may be the product of the hotspot as well; magma flowing from the Discovery hotspot to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge[25] may be leading to excessive production of crustal material there.[26]

Petrological anomalies at spreading ridges have been often attributed to the presence of mantle plumes close to the ridge and such has been proposed for the Discovery hotspot as well.[27] There is a region on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge southwest of the seamounts where there are fewer earthquakes than elsewhere along the ridge, the central valley of the ridge is absent[28] and where dredged rocks share geochemical traits with the Discovery Seamount; that may be the location of the Discovery Hotspot.[13] A position about halfway between the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the Discovery Seamounts has been inferred.[29] The Discovery hotspot may be connected to the Tristan hotspot deep in the mantle.[30]

The South Atlantic features one of the largest transform faults of Earth, the Agulhas-Falkland fracture zone.[31] This transform fault has an unusual structure on the African Plate, where it displays the Agulhas Ridge, two over 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) high ridge segments which are parallel to each other.[32] This unusual structure may be due to magma from the Discovery hotspot, which would have been channelled to the Agulhas Ridge.[33]

CompositionEdit

Rocks dredged from the seamounts include lavas, pillow lavas and volcaniclastic rocks.[34] Geochemically they are classified as alkali basalt, basalt, phonolite, tephriphonolite[8] trachyandesite, trachybasalt and trachyte.[35] Minerals contained in the rocks include alkali feldspar, apatite, biotite, clinopyroxene, iron and titanium oxides, olivine, plagioclase, sphene and spinel.[8] Continental crust rocks dredged at the seamounts may be glacial dropstones,[36] manganese have also been found.[34]

The Discovery hotspot appears to have erupted two separate sets of magmas with distinct compositions, similar to the Tristan da Cunha-Gough Island hotspot.[37] The composition of the Discovery Seamounts rocks has been compared to Gough Island.[5] The more felsic rocks at Discovery appear to be derived from magma chamber processes, similar to felsic rocks at other Atlantic Ocean islands.[38]

BiologyEdit

Soviet fishery during the 1970s and 1980s and others have found c. 150 fish species at Discovery Seamount.[39] Both Japanese and Soviet trawled the seamounts during that time, but there was no commercial exploitation of the resources.[40] The codling Guttigadus nudirostre is endemic to Discovery Seamount.[41] Fossil corals have been recovered in dredges.[42]

Eruption historyEdit

A number of dates ranging from 41 to 35 million years ago have been obtained on dredged samples from the seamounts on the basis of argon-argon dating,[13] but at Discovery Seamount it may have continued until 7-6.5 million years ago.[17] The age of the seamounts decreases in southwest direction, similar to the Walvis Ridge, and at a similar rate.[9]

Unlike the Walvis Ridge, which is connected to the Etendeka flood basalts, the Discovery Seamounts do not link with onshore volcanic features.[5] However, it has been proposed that the 70-80 million years old Blue Hills, Gibeon and Gross Brukkaros kimberlite fields in southern Namibia may have been formed by the Discovery hotspot,[43] and some plate reconstructions place it underneath the Karoo-Ferrar large igneous province at the time at which it was emplaced.[44]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Jokat & Reents 2017, p. 78.
  2. ^ a b c Kempe & Schilling 1974, p. 101.
  3. ^ a b c Buckley 1976, p. 937.
  4. ^ Summerhayes, Colin; Lüdecke, Cornelia (2012). "A German Contribution to South Atlantic Seabed Studies, 1938-39" (PDF). Polarforschung. 82 (2): 100. doi:10.2312/polarforschung.82.2.93. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  5. ^ a b c d Jokat & Reents 2017, p. 77.
  6. ^ Werner & Hauff 2011, p. 6.
  7. ^ Werner & Hauff 2011, p. 4.
  8. ^ a b c Schwindrofska et al. 2016, p. 169.
  9. ^ a b Schwindrofska et al. 2016, p. 170.
  10. ^ Werner & Hauff 2011, p. 20.
  11. ^ Richardson, Philip L. (August 2007). "Agulhas leakage into the Atlantic estimated with subsurface floats and surface drifters" (PDF). Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers. 54 (8): 1378. doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2007.04.010. hdl:1912/2579. ISSN 0967-0637.
  12. ^ Pushcharovskii, Yu. M. (April 2004). "Deep-sea basins of the Atlantic ocean: The structure, time and mechanisms of their formation". Russian Journal of Earth Sciences. 6 (2): 133–152. doi:10.2205/2004ES000146. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  13. ^ a b c d Schwindrofska et al. 2016, p. 168.
  14. ^ a b Kempe & Schilling 1974, p. 102.
  15. ^ Buckley 1976, pp. 943-944.
  16. ^ Buckley 1976, p. 945.
  17. ^ a b Buckley 1976, p. 947.
  18. ^ le Roex et al. 2010, p. 2091.
  19. ^ Jokat & Reents 2017, p. 84.
  20. ^ le Roex et al. 2010, p. 2090.
  21. ^ Jokat & Reents 2017, p. 89.
  22. ^ Homrighausen et al. 2018, p. 6.
  23. ^ Schwindrofska et al. 2016, p. 171.
  24. ^ Gibson & Richards 2018, p. 209.
  25. ^ Gibson & Richards 2018, p. 205.
  26. ^ Gibson & Richards 2018, p. 216.
  27. ^ Douglass et al. 1995, p. 2893.
  28. ^ de Alteriis, G.; Gilg-Capar, L.; Olivet, J.L. (July 1998). "Matching satellite-derived gravity signatures and seismicity patterns along mid-ocean ridges". Terra Nova. 10 (4): 181. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3121.1998.00190.x.
  29. ^ Douglass et al. 1995, p. 2894.
  30. ^ Homrighausen et al. 2018, p. 25.
  31. ^ Uenzelmann-Neben & Gohl 2004, p. 305.
  32. ^ Uenzelmann-Neben & Gohl 2004, p. 306.
  33. ^ Uenzelmann-Neben & Gohl 2004, p. 316.
  34. ^ a b Werner & Hauff 2011, p. 11.
  35. ^ le Roex et al. 2010, p. 2094.
  36. ^ le Roex et al. 2010, p. 2093.
  37. ^ Schwindrofska et al. 2016, p. 175.
  38. ^ le Roex et al. 2010, p. 2109.
  39. ^ Balushkin, A. V.; Prirodina, V. P. (1 March 2010). "Findings of Andriashevs eel cod Muraenolepis andriashevi (Gadiformes: Muraenolepididae) at Discovery Seamount (South Atlantic)". Russian Journal of Marine Biology. 36 (2): 133. doi:10.1134/S1063074010020082. ISSN 1063-0740.
  40. ^ Tony J. PitcherTelmo MoratoPaul J. B. HartMalcolm R. ClarkNigel HagganRicardo S. Santos (2007). Seamounts ecology, fisheries & conservation. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 384–385. doi:10.1002/9780470691953. ISBN 9780470691953.
  41. ^ Meléndez, Roberto C.; Markle, Douglas F. (1 November 1997). "Phylogeny and Zoogeography of Laemonema and Guttigadus (Pisces; Gadiformes; Moridae)". Bulletin of Marine Science. 61 (3): 663.
  42. ^ Werner & Hauff 2011, p. 24.
  43. ^ Reid, D. L.; Cooper, A. F.; Rex, D. C.; Harmer, R. E. (2009). "Timing of post–Karoo alkaline volcanism in southern Namibia". Geological Magazine. 127 (5): 430. doi:10.1017/S001675680001517X. ISSN 1469-5081.
  44. ^ Storey, Bryan C.; Leat, Philip T.; Ferris, Julie K. (2001). Special Paper 352: Mantle plumes: Their identification through time. 352. p. 77. doi:10.1130/0-8137-2352-3.71. ISBN 978-0-8137-2352-5.

SourcesEdit