The Tristan hotspot is a volcanic hotspot which is responsible for the volcanic activity which forms the volcanoes in the southern Atlantic Ocean. It is thought to have formed the island of Tristan da Cunha and the Walvis Ridge on the African Plate.
The Tristan and Gough hotspots are widely spaced end-members of the volcanic system that generated the Walvis Ridge on the African plate and the Rio Grande Rise on the South American plate beginning at when the Paraná and Etendeka traps formed. Whether or not Tristan and Gough represent two distinct volcanic centres is still debated.
Fairhead & Wilson 2005 argued that the Walvis Ridge is not the product of a deep mantle plume or the Tristan hotspot, but that changes in the internal stress in the spreading African and South American plates trigger changes in the magmatic processes in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The Walvis Ridge should then have developed as a result of these periodic stress releases along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
O'Connor et al. 2012 found that the hotspot trails in the eastern South Atlantic (Tristan, Gough, Discovery, Shona, and possibly Bouvet) started forming synchronously . Older seamounts east of these hotspot trails formed at the edge of the African swell where the oceanic crust was spreading apart and are not the product of hotspot volcanism. The Tristan-Gough trail switched from forming a series of aseismic ridges to a broader line of guyots and smaller volcanic ridges at about the same time.
The hotspots of the eastern South Atlantic formed along the plume generation zones (PGZs) of the African large low seismic velocity province (LLSVP). LLSVPs are dense and stable structures, and most of the plumes, kimberlites, and large igneous provinces (LIPs) on Earth can be rotated back to the PGZs. All major African LIPs (Karoo, Paraná-Etendeka, and Agulhas) formed at the PGZs of the African LLSVP but the Tristan-Gough hotspot was the only hotspot located at a spreading boundary and therefore the only African hotspot that started to form a volcanic trail.
Palaeoclimatic and evolutionary roleEdit
Based on molecular estimates, Arnason et al. 2000 found that the Homo-Pan divergence occurred (in contrast to earlier estimates that suggested around 5 Ma). Arnason et al. also estimated the Platyrrhini-Catarrhini divergence to have occurred around and found that the latter evolved in South America before their dispersal into Africa. Arnason et al. hypothesised that the Rio Grande-Walvis Ridge system was exposed above sea level and formed a chain of islands across the South Atlantic during the Maastrichtian and Palaeocene allowing the primates to disperse across the ocean. Other researchers dismiss the hypothesis of Arnason et al. instead favouring a less spectacular rafting event.
- Fairhead & Wilson 2005, p. 539
- Mohriak et al. 2002
- O'Neill, Müller & Steinberger 2005, 3.1 Tristan de Cunha, pp. 11-12
- Fairhead & Wilson 2005, Abstract, p. 537
- O'Connor et al. 2012, pp. 1–2
- Arnason et al. 2000, Abstract
- Arnason et al. 2000, p. 223, Fig 2
- Poux et al. 2006, Possible Migration Histories, p. 240
- Mourer-Chauviré et al. 2011, Abstract
- Arnason, U.; Gullberg, A.; Schweizer Burgete, A.; Janke, A. (2000). "Molecular estimates of primate divergence and new hypotheses for primate dispersal and the origin of modern humans". Hereditas. 133: 217–228. doi:10.1111/j.1601-5223.2000.00217.x. Retrieved May 2015. Check date values in:
- Fairhead, J. D.; Wilson, M. (2005). "Plate tectonic processes in the South Atlantic Ocean: Do we need deep mantle plumes?". In Foulger, G. R. Plates, Plumes, and Paradigms, Issue 388. Geological Society of America. pp. 537–554. ISBN 9780813723884. Retrieved May 2015. Check date values in:
- Mohriak, W. U.; Rosendahl, B. R.; Turner, J. P.; Valente, S. C. (2002). "Crustal architecture of South Atlantic volcanic margins". In Menzies, M. A.; Klemperer, S. L.; Ebinger, C. J.; et al. Volcanic Rifted Margins. 362. Geological Society of America Special Paper. pp. 159–202. doi:10.1130/0-8137-2362-0.159.
- Mourer-Chauviré, C.; Tabuce, R.; Mahboubi, M.; Adaci, M.; Bensalah, M. (2011). "A Phororhacoid bird from the Eocene of Africa". Naturwissenschaften. 98 (10): 815–823. doi:10.1007/s00114-011-0829-5. PMID 21874523.
- O'Connor, J. M.; Jokat, W.; le Roex, A. P.; Class, C.; Wijbrans, J. R.; Keßling, S.; Kuiper, K. F.; Nebel, O. N. (2012). "Hotspot trails in the South Atlantic controlled by plume and plate tectonic processes" (PDF). Nature Geoscience. 5: 735–738. doi:10.1038/ngeo1583. Retrieved May 2015. Check date values in:
- O'Neill, C.; Müller, R. D.; Steinberger, B. (2005). "On the uncertainties in hot spot reconstructions and the significance of moving hot spot reference frames". Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems. 6 (4). Bibcode:2005GGG.....6.4003O. doi:10.1029/2004GC000784.
- Poux, C.; Chevret, P.; Huchon, D.; De Jong, W. W.; Douzery, E. J. (2006). "Arrival and diversification of caviomorph rodents and platyrrhine primates in South America" (PDF). Systematic Biology. 55 (2): 228–244. doi:10.1080/10635150500481390. PMID 16551580. Retrieved May 2015. Check date values in: