Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is an organic compound commonly used plasticizer. With the chemical formula C6H4(CO2C4H9)2, it is a colorless oil, although commercial samples are often yellow. Because of its low toxicity and wide liquid range, it is used as a plasticizer.
|Preferred IUPAC name
1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid dibutyl ester
o-Benzenedicarboxylic acid dibutyl ester
3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||g·mol−1 278.348|
|Appearance||Colorless to faint yellow oily liquid|
|Density||1.05 g/cm3 at 20 °C|
|Melting point||−35 °C (−31 °F; 238 K)|
|Boiling point||340 °C (644 °F; 613 K)|
|13 mg/L (25 °C)|
|Vapor pressure||0.00007 mmHg (20°C)|
|Main hazards||N), Harmful (Xi)|
|R-phrases (outdated)||R50 R61 R62|
|S-phrases (outdated)||S45 S53 S61|
|Flash point||157 °C (315 °F; 430 K) (closed cup)|
|402 °C (756 °F; 675 K)|
|Explosive limits||0.5 - 3.5%|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (median dose)
|5289 mg/kg (oral, mouse)|
8000 mg/kg (oral, rat)
10,000 mg/kg (oral, guinea pig)
LC50 (median concentration)
|4250 mg/m3 (rat)|
25000 mg/m3 (mouse, 2 hr)
|US health exposure limits (NIOSH):|
|TWA 5 mg/m3|
|TWA 5 mg/m3|
IDLH (Immediate danger)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Production and useEdit
DBP is an important plasticizer that allows major engineering plastics, such as PVC, to be used. Such modified PVC is widely used in plumbing for carrying sewerage and other corrosive materials.
As reflected by its octanol-water partition coefficient of around 4, it is lipophilic, which means that it is not readily mobilized (dissolved by) water. Nonetheless dissolved organic compounds (DOC) increase its mobility in landfills.
Biodegradation by microorganisms represents one route for remediation of pollution by DBP. For example, Enterobacter species can biodegrade municipal solid waste—where the DBP concentration can be observed at 1500 ppm—with a half-life of 2–3 hours. In contrast, the same species can break down 100% of dimethyl phthalate after a span of six days. The white rot fungus Polyporus brumalis degrades DBP.
The use of DBP has been restricted in the European Union for use in children's toys since 1999.
An EU Risk Assessment has been conducted on DBP and the final outcome has now been published in the EU Official Journal. To eliminate a potential risk to plants in the vicinity of processing sites and workers through inhalation, measures are to be taken within the framework of the IPPC Directive (96/61/EC) and the Occupational Exposure Directive (98/24/EC) Also includes the 2004 addendum.
Based on urine samples from people of different ages, the European Commission Scientific Committee on Health and Environmental Risks (SCHER) concluded that total exposures to DBP should be further reduced.
Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is one of the six phthalic acid esters found on the Priority Pollutant List, which consists of pollutants regulated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). DBP is leached from landfills. However, due to the fact that DBP has a density less than that of water, a thin surface film forms at the air-water interface.
DBP was added to the California Proposition 65 (1986) list of suspected teratogens in November 2006. It is a suspected endocrine disruptor. It was used in many consumer products, e.g., nail polish, but such usages has declined since around 2006. It was banned in children's toys, in concentrations of 1000 ppm or greater, under section 108 of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008 (CPSIA).
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- EU Council Directive 76/768/EEC of 27 July 1976 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to cosmetic products
- Ban of phthalates in childcare articles and toys, press release IP/99/829, 10 November 1999
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