Lentinus brumalis

(Redirected from Polyporus brumalis)

Lentinus brumalis is an inedible species of fungus in the family Polyporaceae.[1] Its common name is the Winter Polypore. The epithet brumalis means "occuring in the winter", describing how this species tends to fruit during winter.[2][3] It causes white rot on dead hardwood[4], and is distributed throughout the Northern hemisphere in temperate and boreal zones.

Lentinus brumalis
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Polyporales
Family: Polyporaceae
Genus: Lentinus
Species:
L. brumalis
Binomial name
Lentinus brumalis
(Pers.) Zmitr. 2010
Synonyms
  • Polyporus brumalis (Pers.) Fr. 1818
Lentinus brumalis
View the Mycomorphbox template that generates the following list
Pores on hymenium
Cap is offset
Stipe is bare
Spore print is white
Ecology is saprotrophic
Edibility is inedible

Description edit

Macroscopic Characteristics edit

Lentinus brumalis has a round, broadly convex cap that has a diameter of 1.5-10 cm and is 0.5 cm thick. It is depressed in the middle and not zoned. The surface of the cap is dry, though rarely hairy. It ranges from yellow-brown to dark brown in colour. The margin of the cap is often inrolled, particularly in young specimens.[5][6]

There are 3 mm deep pores on the white to cream underside of the cap. They are spaced 1-3 pores per mm2. They have moderately wide, (0.5-)1-1.5 mm large and roundish to almost diamond-shaped pores, which run down the stem a little (decurrent) and are therefore slightly elongated. They change in appearance from dull to lustrous when the orientation to light is changed. The spore print is white.[7]

The stalk is 2.5-5 cm long and 2-8 mm thick. It is ochre brown, occasionally with red tints and is generally lighter than the cap. The dry surface of the cap is either smooth or finely felted to slighty scaly. The flesh is white and its consistency is tender to elastic. It does not have a particular taste or odor, and is inedible.[8][9]

Microscopic characteristics edit

The spores are elliptic to cylindrical and measure 5–7 ×1.5–2.5 μm. They are inamyloid and smooth.[5] The basidia have 4 spores each and measure 16-22 x 5-6.5 μm. Cystidia are absent.[10]

Clamp connections are found throughout all tissue. The hyphal system is dimitic. The generative hyphae of the flesh is 4-10 μm wide, colorless, thin-walled and occasionally branched. The binding hyphae of flesh has a similar colour and width, though it can sometimes swell up to 13 μm wide. It is thick-walled and nonseptate. It is frequently branched and the branches taper to 1-2 μm wide.[10]

KOH does not affect the colour of any parts of this fungi (negative reaction). When stained by guiaic gum, the flesh turns blue, over a period of 6-12 hours. [11]

Mycochemistry edit

Lentinus brumalis is known to produce black pigment called melanin[12], especially under high levels of moisture content (35%-55%) in the wood substrate .[13]

Growth edit

 
Lentinus brumalis

The stipe of Lentinus brumalis is strongly phototropic (grows towards light) before its cap forms. For example, a 12-300 second exposure to 1500 foot-candles of light can cause the stipe to curve 5-80° within 24 hours. After the cap has formed and reached a diameter of 9mm, the stipe stops growing towards the light, instead becoming strongly geotropic (growing away from gravitational pull). [14]

Ecology and Distribution edit

It is saprobic on dead hardwoods, in particular, birch, beech and mountain ash, though in rare cases it grows on conifers such as hemlock and fir. In Uzbekistan, it grows on Celtis australis, willow and poplar trees as well[15]. It grows solitary or in small groups.[11] It is found across North America, though it is more common in the east, where it grows June through October.[16] It also grows in Northern Europe, where it fruits in late October, and March.[2]

Similar Species edit

A potential look-alike, Lentinus strictipes, can be distinguished from Lentinus brumalis as it does not fruit until April, as well as possessing smaller, and finer pores, that are rarely larger than 0.5 mm. A closer look-alike, Lentinus arcularius (the spring polypore), differs from Lentinus brumalis in its larger pores, which are up to 2.5 mm wide, and easily recognizable even on young fruiting bodies.[2] Neofavolus alveolaris has a paler cap, larger pores and spores and a more lateral stipe.[10] Lentinus longiporus has significantly longer pores and grows under willows and poplars in April and May. Cerioporus leptocephalus, Cerioporus varius and Picipes melanopus all have a dark black stipe that is not found on Lentinus brumalis.[11]

Research edit

Cultures of Lentinus brumalis were brought onto the Salyut-5 orbital station, as well as the Salyut 6 orbital station and the earth satellite Cosmo 690, to research the effects of weightlessness, space orientation and light on the geotropism and formation of its fruiting bodies.[17] In the absence of gravity and light, the stipe grew strongly twisted into a spiral or ball, and caps did not from, though in the presence of light, there was little anatomical difference from control samples.[18] However, on Salyut-6, the samples in the dark, formed no fruiting bodies.[19][20]

Lentinus brumalis has also been studied for its potential ability to degrade dibutyl phthalate, or DBP. A study in 2007 reported that DBP was nearly eliminated from a culture medium of P. brumalis within 12 days, potentially through transesterification and de-esterification.[21]

References edit

  1. ^ "Lentinus brumalis in Mycobank".
  2. ^ a b c Jahn, Hermann (1963). Mitteleuropäische Porlinge (Polyporaceae s. lato) und ihr Vorkommen in Westfalen (in German) (4 ed.). pp. 30–31.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  3. ^ Polypores and Similar Fungi of Eastern and Central North America. University of Texas Press. 2021. p. 215. ISBN 978-1-4773-2273-4.
  4. ^ Phillips, Roger (2010). Mushrooms and Other Fungi of North America. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books. p. 300. ISBN 978-1-55407-651-2.
  5. ^ a b "Polyporus brumalis (MushroomExpert.Com)". www.mushroomexpert.com. Retrieved 2024-02-25.
  6. ^ McKnight, Karl B.; Rohrer, Joseph R.; McKnight Ward, Kirsten; McKnight, Kent H. (2021). Peterson Filed Guide to Mushrooms (2nd ed.). Harper Collins. p. 276. ISBN 9780544236110.
  7. ^ Gerhardt, Ewald, ed. (2002). BLV-Handbuch Pilze: über 1000 beschriebene Pilzarten (in German). Munich: BLV. ISBN 978-3-405-14737-2.
  8. ^ Krieglsteiner, German J. (2000). Allgemeiner Teil. Ständerpilze: Gallert-, Rinden-, Stachel- und Porenpilze. Die Großpilze Baden-Württembergs (in German). ISBN 978-3-8001-3528-8.
  9. ^ Breitenbach, J.; Breitenbach, J. (1986). Heterobasidiomycetes (Gallertpilze), Aphyllophorales (Nichtblätterpilze), Gastromycetes (Bauchpilze). Pilze der Schweiz : Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Pilzflora der Schweiz / hrsg. von J. Breitenbach und F. Kränzlin (in German). ISBN 978-3-85604-020-8.
  10. ^ a b c "E-Flora BC Atlas Page". linnet.geog.ubc.ca. Retrieved 2024-02-26.
  11. ^ a b c Labbé, Robert (March 2023). "Lentinus brumalis / Winter polypore". MycoQuebec. Retrieved 2024-02-26.
  12. ^ Sridhar, KR; Deshmukh, Sunil Kumar (2021). Advances in Macrofungi; Industrial Avenues and Prospects. CRC Press. ISBN 9781000460124.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  13. ^ Tudor, Daniela (2014-01-14). Fungal Pigment Formation in Wood Substrate (Thesis thesis).
  14. ^ Giese, Arthur C. (October 22, 2013). Photophysiology: Current Topics. Elsevier Science. p. 71. ISBN 9781483262284.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  15. ^ Khojimatov, Olim K.; Gafforov, Yusufjon; Bussmann, Rainer W., eds. (2023). "Ethnobiology of Uzbekistan". Ethnobiology: 1257. doi:10.1007/978-3-031-23031-8. ISSN 2365-7553.
  16. ^ Phillips, Roger (2010). Mushrooms and Other Fungi of North America. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books. p. 300. ISBN 978-1-55407-651-2.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  17. ^ Vaulina, E. N.; Palmbakh, L. R.; Antipov, V. V.; Anikeeva, I. D.; Kostina, L. N.; Zharikova, G. G.; Kasatkina, T. B. (1979). "Biological investigations on the orbital station "Salyut-5"". Life Sciences and Space Research. 17: 241–246. ISSN 0075-9422. PMID 12008713.
  18. ^ Kasatkina, T. B.; Zharikova, G. G.; Rubin, A. B.; Palmbakh, L. R.; Vaulina, E. N.; Mashinsky, A. L. (1980-01-01), Holmquist, R. (ed.), "DEVELOPMENT OF HIGHER FUNGI UNDER WEIGHTLESSNESS", Life Sciences and Space Research, Pergamon, pp. 205–211, doi:10.1016/b978-0-08-024436-5.50028-7, ISBN 978-0-08-024436-5, retrieved 2024-02-25
  19. ^ Zharikova, G. G.; Rubin, A. B.; Nemchinov, A. V. (1977). "Effects of weightlessness, space orientation and light on geotropism and the formation of fruit bodies in higher fungi". Life Sciences and Space Research. 15: 291–294. ISSN 0075-9422. PMID 11962503.
  20. ^ Moore, David (January 1991). "Perception and response to gravity in higher fungi – a critical appraisal". New Phytologist. 117 (1): 3–23. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.1991.tb00940.x. ISSN 0028-646X.
  21. ^ Lee, Soo-Min; Lee, Jae-Won; Koo, Bon-Wook; Kim, Myung-Kil; Choi, Don-Ha; Choi, In-Gyu (2007-08-15). "Dibutyl phthalate biodegradation by the white rot fungus, Polyporus brumalis". Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 97 (6): 1516–1522. doi:10.1002/bit.21333. ISSN 0006-3592. PMID 17221890.

External links edit