1960 Democratic Party presidential primaries

The 1960 Democratic presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Democratic Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 1960 U.S. presidential election. Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts was selected as the nominee through a series of primary elections and caucuses culminating in the 1960 Democratic National Convention held from July 11 to July 15, 1960, in Los Angeles, California.

1960 Democratic Party presidential primaries

← 1956 March 8 to June 7, 1960 1964 →
  John F. Kennedy, White House color photo portrait.jpg Hubert Humphrey crop.jpg
Candidate John F. Kennedy Hubert Humphrey
Home state Massachusetts Minnesota
Contests won 10 2
Popular vote 1,847,259 590,410
Percentage 31.4% 10.1%

1960 Dem Primaries.svg
Primaries by state

Previous Democratic nominee

Adlai Stevenson

Democratic nominee

John F. Kennedy

Primary raceEdit

Recalling the experience of 1928 Catholic Democratic presidential nominee Al Smith, many wondered if anti-Catholic prejudice would affect Kennedy's chances of winning the nomination and the election in November. To prove his vote-getting ability, Kennedy challenged Minnesota Senator Hubert Humphrey, a liberal, in the Wisconsin primary. Although Kennedy defeated Humphrey in Wisconsin, the fact that his margin of victory came mostly from heavily Catholic areas left many party bosses unconvinced of Kennedy's appeal to non-Catholic voters. Kennedy next faced Humphrey in the heavily Protestant state of West Virginia, where anti-Catholic bigotry was said to be widespread. Humphrey's campaign was low on money and could not compete with the well-organized, well-financed Kennedy team. Kennedy's attractive sisters and brothers combed the state looking for votes, leading Humphrey to complain that he "felt like an independent merchant running against a chain store."[1] On primary day, Kennedy crushed Humphrey with over 60% of the vote. Humphrey withdrew from the race and Kennedy had gained the victory he needed to prove to the party's bosses that a Catholic could win in a non-Catholic state. In the months leading up to the Democratic Convention Kennedy traveled around the nation persuading delegates from various states to support him. However, as the Convention opened, Kennedy was still a few dozen votes short of victory.

Although Kennedy won primaries by comfortable margin, his main opponent, Senate Majority Leader Lyndon B. Johnson, who did not participate in primaries, had a very strong base in party establishment and gained many delegates. Johnson did not join any primary, but was a write-in.[2]

CandidatesEdit

The following political leaders were candidates for the 1960 Democratic presidential nomination:

Major candidatesEdit

These candidates participated in multiple state primaries or were included in multiple major national polls.

Competing in primariesEdit

Candidate Most recent position Home state Campaign
John F. Kennedy   U.S. Senator
from Massachusetts
(1952–61)
 
Massachusetts
 
(Campaign)
Hubert Humphrey   U.S. Senator
from Minnesota
(1949–64)
 
Minnesota
 
(Campaign)
Wayne Morse   Senator
from Oregon
(1945–69)
 
Oregon
(Campaign)

Bypassing primariesEdit

The following candidates did not place their name directly on the ballot for any state's presidential primary, but may have sought to influence to selection of un-elected delegates or sought the support of uncommitted delegates.

Candidate Most recent position Home state Campaign
Lyndon B. Johnson   U.S. Senator
from Texas
(1949–61)
 
Texas
 
(Campaign)
Adlai Stevenson II   Former Governor
of Illinois
(1949–53)
 
Illinois
(Campaign)
Stuart Symington   U.S. Senator
from Missouri

(1953–76)
 
Missouri
(Campaign)
Robert B. Meyner[3]   Governor
of New Jersey
(1954–62)
 
New Jersey
(Campaign)

Favorite sonsEdit

The following candidates ran only in their home state's primary or caucus for the purpose of controlling its delegate slate at the convention and did not appear to be considered national candidates by the media.

Declined to runEdit

The following persons were listed in two or more major national polls or were the subject of media speculation surrounding their potential candidacy, but declined to actively seek the nomination.

PollingEdit

National pollingEdit

Poll source Publication
Pat Brown
Hubert Humphrey
Estes Kefauver
John F. Kennedy
Lyndon Johnson
Adlai Stevenson
Stuart Symington
Other
Undecided
Gallup[4] Aug. 11, 1957 5% 29% 23% 8% 5% 14%[a] 16%
Gallup[5] Nov. 16, 1957 3% 26% 19% 11% 5% 15%[b] 21%
Gallup[6] June 11, 1958 3% 16% 19% 12% 23% 4% 8%[c] 15%
Gallup[7] Nov. 30, 1958 1% 11% 23% 6% 29% 5% 11%[d] 14%
Gallup[8] Jan. 25, 1959 4% 10% 25% 7% 29% 4% 12%[e] 9%
Gallup[9] April 5, 1959 12% 28% 9% 27% 5% 11%[f] 9%
Gallup[10] May 18, 1959 5% 10% 25% 13% 26% 7% 6%[g] 8%
Gallup[11] June 10, 1959 6% 26% 12% 29% 4% 6%[h] 8%
Gallup[12] July 9, 1959 4% 11% 29% 14% 25% 6% 4%[i] 7%
Gallup[13] Aug. 14, 1959 2% 5% 9% 26% 12% 26% 7% 6%[j] 7%
Gallup[14] Sep. 27, 1959 1% 5% 9% 30% 10% 26% 6% 8% 5%
Gallup[15] Nov. 18, 1959 3% 4% 10% 27% 11% 26% 6% 5%[k] 8%
Gallup[16] Dec. 18, 1959 3% 4% 10% 24% 14% 26% 5% 4%[l] 10%
Gallup[17] Jan. 29, 1960 2% 5% 6% 32% 12% 28% 6% 3%[m] 6%
Gallup[18] Feb. 26, 1960 6% 6% 35% 13% 23% 5% 5%[n] 7%
Gallup[19] March 27, 1960 3% 5% 34% 15% 23% 6% 6% 8%
Gallup[20] April 20, 1960 3% 7% 39% 11% 21% 6% 5% 8%
Gallup[21] May 27, 1960 7% 41% 11% 21% 7% 9% 4%
  1. ^ Frank Clement with 6%, G. Mennen Williams with 4%, Edmund Muskie with 2%, Robert Meyner and Robert Kerr combined for 2%
  2. ^ Frank Clement with 6%, Robert Meyner with 3%, and 6% combined for Happy Chandler, G. Mennen Williams, and Robert Kerr
  3. ^ Frank Clement with 4%, Robert Meyner and G. Mennen Williams combined for 4%
  4. ^ G. Mennen Williams with 5%, Orval Faubus with 4%, and Robert Meyner with <2%
  5. ^ G. Mennen Williams with 5%, Orval Faubus with 5%, and Robert Meyner with 2%
  6. ^ Combined for Orval Faubus, Hubert Humphrey, Robert Meyner, and G. Mennen Williams
  7. ^ Combined for G. Mennen Williams, Orval Faubus, and Robert Meyner
  8. ^ Combined for Robert Meyner and G. Mennen Williams
  9. ^ Combined for Robert Meyner and G. Mennen Williams
  10. ^ Robert Meyner with 3%, G. Mennen Williams with 3%
  11. ^ G. Mennen Williams with 3% and Robert Meyner with 2%
  12. ^ Robert Meyner with 2% and G. Mennen Williams with 2%
  13. ^ G. Mennen Williams with 2% and Robert Meyner with 1%
  14. ^ Robert Meyner with 2%; Pat Brown, G. Mennen Williams, Wayne Morse, and Chester Bowles combined for 3%

Two-way racesEdit

Kennedy v. Kefauver

Poll source Date(s)
Estes Kefauver
John F. Kennedy
Undecided
Gallup[22] Feb. 7, 1958 35% 56% 9%

Kennedy v. Johnson

Poll source Date(s)
Lyndon Johnson
John F. Kennedy
Undecided
Gallup[23] Feb. 28, 1960 32% 58% 10%

Kennedy v. Stevenson

Poll source Date(s)
John F. Kennedy
Adlai Stevenson
Undecided
Gallup[24] Dec. 3, 1958 42% 42% 16%
Gallup[25] Feb. 6, 1959 44% 45% 1%
Gallup[26] June 12, 1959 45% 44% 11%
Gallup[23] Feb. 28, 1960 50% 43% 7%
Look magazine[27] June 21, 1960 59% 20% 21%

Johnson v. Symington

Poll source Date(s)
Lyndon Johnson
Stuart Symington
Undecided
Gallup[23] February 28, 1960 47% 28% 25%

Statewide pollingEdit

West VirginiaEdit

Poll source Date(s) Sample
size[a]
Hubert Humphrey
John F. Kennedy
Other
Undecided
The Fayette Tribune[28] May 6, 1960 181 A in Fayette County 24% 38% 39%

WisconsinEdit

Poll source Date(s) Sample
size[a]
Hubert Humphrey
John F. Kennedy
Lyndon Johnson
Adlai Stevenson
Stuart Symington
Other
Undecided
Sen. William Proxmire[29] Aug 5, 1959 1,311 A 17% 43% 4% 29% 7%

PrimariesEdit

States by winnerEdit

John F. Kennedy Pat Brown Hubert Humphrey George Smathers Michael DiSalle Unpledged
March 8 New Hampshire 85%
April 5 Wisconsin 56% 44%
April 12 Illinois 65% 8%
April 19 New Jersey 100%
April 26 Massachusetts 92% 1%
April 26 Pennsylvania 71% 4%
May 3 Indiana 81%
May 3 Ohio 60%
May 3 D.C. 57%
May 10 Nebraska 89% 4%
May 10 West Virginia 61% 39%
May 17 Maryland 70% 8%
May 20 Oregon 51% 6%
May 24 Florida 100%
June 7 California 67%
June 7 South Dakota 100%

Total popular voteEdit

Total number of vote in primaries:

candidates:

"Favorite Sons:"

ConventionEdit

Presidential nominationEdit

Presidential tally:[30]

Vice-presidential nominationEdit

Kennedy announced Lyndon B. Johnson as his choice of running-mate on the afternoon following his nomination.[31] Johnson was nominated by acclamation that evening.[32]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b Key:
    A – all adults
    RV – registered voters
    LV – likely voters
    V – unclear

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Schlesinger, Arthur M. (2002) [1978]. Robert Kennedy and His Times. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 195. ISBN 0-618-21928-5.
  2. ^ Our Campaigns - US President - D Primaries Race - Feb 01, 1960
  3. ^ Oliphant, Thomas; Wilkie, Curtis (2017). The road to Camelot: Inside JFK's Five-Year Campaign. Simon & Schuster.
  4. ^ Gallup, George (11 Aug 1957). "Kefauver, Kennedy Tops in Party". The Washington Post. p. E5.
  5. ^ Gallup, George (17 Nov 1957). "GALLUP POLL SHOWS: Kefauver Democratic Choice for 1960, Sen. Kennedy Second". Los Angeles Times. p. 21.
  6. ^ Gallup, George (11 June 1958). "Stevenson Top Choice of Democratic Voters". Los Angeles Times. p. 15.
  7. ^ Gallup, George (30 Nov 1958). "Stevenson Tops Poll of Democrats: Kennedy Leads in Gallup Survey of Independent Voters". Los Angeles Times.
  8. ^ Gallup, George (25 Jan 1959). "STEVENSON LEAD IN POLL LOWERED: Kennedy Closes Gap Over November Gallup Rating; Still lndependents'-Choice". Los Angeles Times. p. A.
  9. ^ Gallup, George (5 Apr 1959). "Kennedy, Stevenson Tie for Democratic Favor: Massachusetts Senator Gains Slightly, Gallup Poll Sampling Reveals". Los Angeles Times.
  10. ^ Gallup, George (18 May 1959). "Stevenson, Kennedy Run Close: Gallup Poll Shows Johnson Third With Democrats". Los Angeles Times. p. 6.
  11. ^ Gallup, George (10 June 1959). "Top Places Maintained by Stevenson, Kennedy". The Hartford Courant. p. 16.
  12. ^ Gallup, George (9 July 1959). "Kennedy Moves Out Ahead of Adlai In Democrats' Rating for Nomination". The Washington Post. p. A21.
  13. ^ Gallup, George (14 Aug 1959). "Kennedy and Stevenson Still Pace the Democrats". The Washington Post. p. D4.
  14. ^ Gallup, George (27 Sep 1959). "Party Rates Kennedy No. 1". The Boston Globe. p. A3.
  15. ^ Gallup, George (18 Nov 1959). "Stevenson Pulls Closer to Kennedy in Poll". The Hartford Courant. p. 16.
  16. ^ Gallup, George (18 Dec 1959). "Kennedy Loses Ground Slightly, Johnson Gains". The Washington Post. p. A21.
  17. ^ Gallup, George (29 Jan 1960). "Kennedy Scores Gain in Democrat Backing". Los Angeles Times. p. 6.
  18. ^ Gallup, George (26 Feb 1960). "Kennedy Lead Gains as Democratic Choice". Los Angeles Times. p. 21.
  19. ^ Gallup, George (27 Mar 1960). "Kennedy Keeps Lead in Democratic Vote". Los Angeles Times. p. A.
  20. ^ Gallup, George (20 Apr 1960). "Kennedy Widens Lead in New Gallup Poll". Los Angeles Times. p. 24.
  21. ^ Gallup, George (27 May 1960). "Kennedy In Same Spot As Previous Candidates". The Hartford Daily Courant. p. 17.
  22. ^ Gallup, George (7 Feb 1958). "Kennedy Widens Lead Over Kefauver in Poll". Los Angeles Times. p. 24.
  23. ^ a b c Gallup, George (28 Feb 1960). "Kennedy Favored by Democrats". Los Angeles Times. p. B14.
  24. ^ Gallup, George (3 Dec 1958). "Kennedy, Stevenson Tied As '60 'Show-Down' Choice". The Hartford Courant.
  25. ^ Gallup, George (6 Feb 1959). "GALLUP POLL REPORTS:: Stevenson in Slight Gain on Sen. Kennedy". Los Angeles Times.
  26. ^ Gallup, George (12 June 1959). "Stevenson, Kennedy in Close Race". Los Angeles Times. p. 17.
  27. ^ "Poll Finds Nixon, Kennedy Favored". The Washington Post. 21 June 1960.
  28. ^ Lawrence, W.H. (6 May 1960). "West Virginia Poll Finds Kennedy Gain". The New York Times. p. 1.
  29. ^ "Kennedy, Nixon in Poll Lead". The Austin Statesman. 5 Aug 1959. p. 3.
  30. ^ Our Campaigns - US President - D Convention Race - Jul 11, 1960
  31. ^ White, Theodore (1961). The Making of the President 1960. Giant Cardinal. p. 212.
  32. ^ Lawrence, W. H. (July 15, 1960). "Johnson is Nominated for Vice President; Kennedy Picks Him to Placate the South". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 September 2016.