Daniel 1 (the first chapter of the Book of Daniel) tells how Daniel and his three companions were among captives taken by Nebuchadnezzar II from Jerusalem to Babylon to be trained in Babylonian wisdom. There they refused to take food and wine from the king and were given knowledge and insight into dreams and visions by God, and at the end of their training they proved ten times better than all the magicians and enchanters in the kingdom.
Daniel refusing to eat at the King's table, early 1900s Bible illustration
|Book||Book of Daniel|
|Christian Bible part||Old Testament|
|Order in the Christian part||27|
The overall theme of Daniel is God's sovereignty over history. Chapter 1 introduces God as the figure in control of all that happens, the possessor of sovereign will and power: it is he who gives Jehoiakim into Nebuchadnezzar's hands and takes Daniel and his friends into Babylonian exile, he gives Daniel "grace and mercies," and gives the four young Jews their "knowledge and skill."
The Book of Daniel is "a composite text of dubious historicity from various genres," and Daniel himself is a legendary figure. The book of which he is the hero divides into two parts, a set of tales in chapters 1–6 from no earlier than the Hellenistic period (323-30 BCE), and the series of visions in chapters 7–12 from the Maccabean era (the mid-2nd century BCE). Chapter 1 was apparently added as an introduction to the tales when they were collected around the end of the 3rd century BCE.
In the third year of king Jehoiakim of Judah God let the kingdom fall into the hands of the necromancer and Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon, who carried off some of the Temple vessels and some young Jews of royal and noble blood to be taught the literature and language of Babylon for three years, at the end of which they would be placed in the royal court. Among these young men were Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, who were given new names (Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah became Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego, while Daniel's Babylonian name was Belteshazzar) and allocated rations of food and wine. But Daniel resolved not to defile himself, and refused the royal food and wine, thriving instead on vegetables and water. God gave them knowledge and skill, and to Daniel he gave insight into visions and dreams, and when the three years of training were completed none were found to compare with them in wisdom and understanding.
Composition and structureEdit
The Book of Daniel originated as a collection of folktales among the Jewish community in Babylon and Mesopotamia in the Persian and early Hellenistic periods (5th to 3rd centuries BCE), before being expanded in the Maccabean era (mid-2nd century) by the addition of the visions in chapters 7-12. Daniel is a legendary figure, probably chosen for the book's hero because of his reputation as a wise seer in Hebrew tradition. The tales are in the voice of an anonymous narrator, except for chapter 4, which is in the form of a letter from king Nebuchadnezzar. Chapters 2-7 are in the form of a chiasmus, a poetic structure in which the main point or message of a passage is placed in the centre and framed by further repetitions on either side:
- A. (2:4b-49) – A dream of four kingdoms replaced by a fifth
- B. (3:1–30) – Daniel's three friends in the fiery furnace
- C. (4:1–37) – Daniel interprets a dream for Nebuchadnezzar
- C'. (5:1–31) – Daniel interprets the handwriting on the wall for Belshazzar
- B'. (6:1–28) – Daniel in the lions' den
- B. (3:1–30) – Daniel's three friends in the fiery furnace
- A'. (7:1–28) – A vision of four world kingdoms replaced by a fifth
Daniel 1 serves as an introduction to the book, showing how God continues to move throughout history when men seem to have failed (i.e., how God stands for his people when they are in a foreign land and subject to an alien power). An interesting feature of the book is that the accounts of chapters 2-6 and the visions in chapter 7 are in Aramaic (after the first few lines of chapter 2 in Hebrew). However, the visions of chapters 8-12 are in Hebrew, as is the introduction, chapter 1.
Genre and themesEdit
The Book of Daniel is an apocalypse, a literary genre in which a heavenly reality is revealed to a human recipient; such works are characterized by visions, symbolism, an angelic interpreter, and an emphasis on end-time events. Apocalypses were common from 300 BCE to 100 CE, not only among Jews and Christians, but Greeks, Romans, Persians and Egyptians. Daniel, the book's hero, is a representative apocalyptic seer, the recipient of the divine revelation. He refused to learn the wisdom of the Babylonian magicians and thus surpassed them, because his God is the true source of knowledge. The book is also an eschatology, meaning a divine revelation concerning the end of the present age, a moment in which God will intervene in history to usher in the final kingdom.
The overall theme of the Book of Daniel is God's sovereignty over history, and the theme of the tales in chapters 1-6 is that God is sovereign over all earthly kings. Daniel 1 introduces the fundamental question that runs through the entire book, how God may continue to work his plans when all seems lost. Chapter 1 introduces God as the figure in control of all that happens, the possessor of sovereign will and power: he "gives" Jehoiachim into Nebuchadnezzar's hands, he "gives" Daniel "grace and mercies," and it is he who gives the four young Jews their "knowledge and skill." It was God who took Daniel and his friends into Babylonian exile, and it is God who is the source of their gifts and salvation.
Daniel 1 and historyEdit
According to the opening verses of Daniel 1 the hero's captivity began when Nebuchadnezzar besieged Jerusalem in the third year of King Jehoiakim (606 BCE), but it is difficult to harmonise these verses with known history:
- According to other sources in the Bible, Nebuchadnezzar did not begin to reign until the fourth year of Jehoiakim (Jeremiah 25:1);
- The Babylonian chronicles note Nebuchadnezzar's campaigns in Palestine as Crown Prince before this, but none are on Jerusalem;
- All the sources, Biblical and Babylonian, mention an attack on Jerusalem in 597, but none prior.
Daniel's story ends with his final vision in the third year of Cyrus (Daniel 10:1 - chapters 11 and 12 of the book are the continuation of the same final vision). The third year of Cyrus was 536 BCE, and the although the fact this falls exactly 70 years after 586 may not be significant (the author never draws attention to it), it strikes a chord with Daniel 9, where he introduces the prophecy of a 70-year time-span for the exile. He has apparently drawn his history from 2 Chronicles 36:5-7, which says that Nebuchadnezzar took Jehoiakim to Babylon (he took Zedekiah, who became king on his death), and 2 Kings 24:1, which says that Jehoiakim served Nebuchadnezzar three years and then rebelled. The story of the noble Daniel and his friends being taken off to Babylon could be viewed as a fulfillment of the prophet Isaiah's warning to King Hezekiah that his sons would become eunuchs in the palace of the king of Babylon (Isaiah 39:7), although this does not mean that the story was inspired by this verse.
Daniel's refusal of the royal foodEdit
There has been much scholarly discussion of the reasons for Daniel's refusal of the king's ration. The explanation perhaps most commonly found is that Daniel and his friends wished to avoid breaking the Jewish religious laws regarding ritual slaughter (the kosher laws); alternatively, they may have wished to avoid meat and wine as these, unlike vegetables and water, were regularly used in offerings to gods (in this case, the gods of Babylon). In either case, the theological point being made is that the Jewish youths are remaining loyal to the God of Israel while still serving the foreign king.
The portrayal of Daniel and his companions as noble and educated youths may reflect the circle of the book's authors: the Jewish youths serve a foreign king while remaining true to the Jewish law. This circle are identified later in the book, in chapters 11 and 12, as the maskilim, "the wise", teachers who will "give understanding" and "lead many to righteousness," despite the suffering they will endure in the end-time of persecution. It is these 2nd-century BCE teachers of wisdom who stand behind the author of the book of Daniel.
- Seow 2003, pp. 19-20.
- Levine 2010, p. 1234.
- Seow 2003, pp. 20-21.
- Brettler 2010, p. 213.
- Collins 2002, pp. 2,28.
- Collins 1984, p. 45.
- Collins 1984, pp. 29,34-35.
- Collins 1984, p. 28.
- Redditt 2008, pp. 176-177,180.
- Wesselius 2002, p. 295.
- Redditt 2009, p. 177.
- Seow 2003, p. 20.
- Crawford 2000, p. 73.
- Davies 2006, pp. 397-406.
- Carroll 2000, pp. 420-421.
- Newsom & Breed 2014, p. 63.
- Nelson 2013, p. unpaginated.
- Matthews & Moyer 2012, p. 267.
- Levine 2010, p. 1235 fn1.8-21.
- Collins 1984, pp. 45-46.
- Davies 2001, pp. 251-252.
- Bandstra, Barry L. (2008). Reading the Old Testament: An Introduction to the Hebrew Bible. Wadsworth Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0495391050.
- Beckwith, Carl L. (2012). Ezekiel, Daniel. IVP Academic. ISBN 9780830829620.
- Boyer, Paul S. (1992). When Time Shall Be No More: Prophecy Belief in Modern American Culture. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-95129-7.
- Brettler, Mark Zvi (2005). How To Read the Bible. Jewish Publication Society. ISBN 9780827610019.
- Carroll, John T. (2000). "Eschatology". In Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. (eds.). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9789053565032.
- Cohn, Shaye J.D. (2006). From the Maccabees to the Mishnah. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664227432.
- Collins, John J. (1984). Daniel: With an Introduction to Apocalyptic Literature. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802800206.
- Collins, John J. (1998). The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802843715.
- Collins, John J. (2001). "Current Issues in the Study of Daniel". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron (eds.). The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception. I. BRILL. ISBN 978-9004116757.
- Collins, John J. (2003). "From Prophecy to Apocalypticism: The Expectation of the End". In McGinn, Bernard; Collins, John J.; Stein, Stephen J. (eds.). The Continuum History of Apocalypticism. Continuum. ISBN 9780826415202.
- Coogan, Michael (2009). A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 400.
- Crawford, Sidnie White (2000). "Apocalyptic". In Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. (eds.). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans.
- Davidson, Robert (1993). "Jeremiah, Book of". In Metzger, Bruce M.; Coogan, Michael D. (eds.). The Oxford Companion to the Bible. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199743919.
- Davies, Philip R. (2001). "The Scribal School of Daniel". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron (eds.). The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception. I. BRILL. ISBN 978-9004116757.
- Davies, Philip (2006). "Apocalyptic". In Rogerson, J. W.; Lieu, Judith M. (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Biblical Studies. Oxford Handbooks Online. ISBN 9780199254255.
- DeChant, Dell (2009). "Apocalyptic Communities". In Neusner, Jacob (ed.). World Religions in America: An Introduction. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9781611640472.
- Doukhan, Jacques (2000). Secrets of Daniel: wisdom and dreams of a Jewish prince in exile. Review and Herald Pub Assoc. ISBN 9780828014243.
- Dunn, James D.G. (2002). "The Danilic Son of Man in the New Testament". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron (eds.). The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception. BRILL. ISBN 978-0391041288.
- Froom, Le Roy Edwin (1950). Early Church Exposition, Subsequent Deflections, and Medieval Revival. The Prophetic Faith of our Fathers: The Historical Development of Prophetic Interpretation. 1. The Review and Herald Publishing Association. p. 1006. Archived from the original on 2012-06-14. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- Froom, Le Roy Edwin (1948). Pre-Reformation and Reformation Restoration, and Second Departure. The Prophetic Faith of our Fathers: The Historical Development of Prophetic Interpretation. 2. The Review and Herald Publishing Association. p. 863. Archived from the original on 2012-06-14. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- Froom, Le Roy Edwin (1946). PART I, Colonial and Early National American Exposition. PART II, Old World Nineteenth Century Advent Awakening. The Prophetic Faith of our Fathers: The Historical Development of Prophetic Interpretation. 3. The Review and Herald Publishing Association. p. 802. Archived from the original on 2012-06-14. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- Gallagher, Eugene V. (2011). "Millennialism, Scripture, and Tradition". In Wessinger, Catherine (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Millennialism. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195301052.
- Goldingay, John J. (2002). "Daniel in the Context of OT Theology". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron (eds.). The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception. II. BRILL. ISBN 978-0391041288.
- Grabbe, Lester L. (2010). An Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel, and Jesus. Continuum. ISBN 9780567552488.
- Grabbe, Lester L. (2002). Judaic Religion in the Second Temple Period: Belief and Practice from the Exile to Yavneh. Routledge. ISBN 9780203461013.
- Grabbe, Lester L. (2002). "A Dan(iel) For All Seasons". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron (eds.). The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception. BRILL.
- Hammer, Raymond (1976). The Book of Daniel. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521097659.
- Harrington, Daniel J. (1999). Invitation to the Apocrypha. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802846334.
- Hill, Andrew E. (2009). "Daniel-Malachi". In Longman, Tremper; Garland, David E. (eds.). The Expositor's Bible Commentary. 8. Zondervan.
- Hill, Charles E. (2000). "Antichrist". In Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. (eds.). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans.
- Holbrook, Frank B. (1986). The Seventy Weeks, Leviticus, and the Nature of Prophecy (Volume 3 of Daniel and Revelation Committee Series ed.). Biblical Research Institute, General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists. ISBN 978-0925675026.
- Horsley, Richard A. (2007). Scribes, Visionaries, and the Politics of Second Temple Judea. Presbyterian Publishing Corp.
- Knibb, Michael (2009). Essays on the Book of Enoch and Other Early Jewish Texts and Traditions. BRILL.
- Knibb, Michael (2002). "The Book of Daniel in its Context". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron (eds.). The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception. BRILL.
- Koch, Klaus (2002). "Stages in the Canonization of the Book of daniel". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron (eds.). The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception. BRILL.
- Kratz, Reinhard (2002). "The Visions of Daniel". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron (eds.). The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception. BRILL.
- Levine, Amy-Jill (2010). "Daniel". In Coogan, Michael D.; Brettler, Marc Z.; Newsom, Carol A. (eds.). The new Oxford annotated Bible with the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical books : New Revised Standard Version. Oxford University Press.
- Lucas, Ernest C. (2005). "Daniel, Book of". In Vanhoozer, Kevin J.; Bartholomew, Craig G.; Treier, Daniel J. (eds.). Dictionary for Theological Interpretation of the Bible. Baker Academic.
- Mangano, Mark (2001). Esther & Daniel. College Press.
- Matthews, Victor H.; Moyer, James C. (2012). The Old Testament: Text and Context. Baker Books. ISBN 9780801048357.
- Nelson, William (2013). Daniel. Baker Books. ISBN 9781441240064.
- Newsom, Carol A.; Breed, Brennan W. (2014). Daniel: A Commentary. Presbyterian Publishing Corp. ISBN 9780664220808.
- Nichol, F., ed. (1954). "chronology chart". SDA Bible Commentary. pp. 326–327.
- Niskanen, Paul (2004). The Human and the Divine in History: Herodotus and the Book of Daniel. Continuum. ISBN 9780567082138.
- Pasachoff, Naomi E.; Littman, Robert J. (2005). A Concise History of the Jewish People. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9780742543669.
- Portier-Young, Anathea E. (2013). Apocalypse Against Empire: Theologies of Resistance in Early Judaism. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837110.
- Provan, Iain (2003). "Daniel". In Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William (eds.). Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837110.
- Redditt, Paul L. (2009). Introduction to the Prophets. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802828965.
- Reid, Stephen Breck (2000). "Daniel, Book of". In Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. (eds.). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9789053565032.
- Rowland, Christopher (2007). "Apocalyptic Literature". In Hass, Andrew; Jasper, David; Jay, Elisabeth (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of English Literature and Theology. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199271979.
- Ryken, Leland; Wilhoit, Jim; Longman, Tremper (1998). Dictionary of Biblical Imagery. InterVarsity Press. ISBN 9780830867332.
- Sacchi, Paolo (2004). The History of the Second Temple Period. Continuum. ISBN 9780567044501.
- Schwartz, Daniel R. (1992). Studies in the Jewish Background of Christianity. Mohr Siebeck. ISBN 9783161457982.
- Seow, C.L. (2003). Daniel. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664256753.
- Schiffman, Lawrence H. (1991). From Text to Tradition: A History of Second Temple and Rabbinic Judaism. KTAV Publishing House. ISBN 9780881253726.
- Spencer, Richard A. (2002). "Additions to Daniel". In Mills, Watson E.; Wilson, Richard F. (eds.). The Deuterocanonicals/Apocrypha. Mercer University Press. ISBN 9780865545106.
- Towner, W. Sibley (1993). "Daniel". In Coogan, Michael D.; Metzger, Bruce M. (eds.). The Oxford Companion to the Bible. Oxford University Press.
- Towner, W. Sibley (1984). Daniel. Westminster John Knox Press.
- VanderKam, James C. (2010). The Dead Sea Scrolls Today. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802864352.
- VanderKam, James C.; Flint, Peter (2013). The meaning of the Dead Sea scrolls: their significance for understanding the Bible, Judaism, Jesus, and Christianity. HarperCollins. ISBN 9780062243300.
- Weber, Timothy P. (2007). "Millennialism". In Walls, Jerry L. (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Eschatology. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199742486.
- Wesselius, Jan-Wim (2002). "The Writing of Daniel". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron (eds.). The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception. BRILL. ISBN 978-0391041288.
- Hoehner, Harold W. (1978). Chronological aspects of the life of Christ ([5th print.] ed.). Grand Rapids: Zondervan. p. 115. ISBN 9780310262114.
- Montgomery, James A (1927). A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Daniel (BiblioBazaar, 2010 Reprint ed.). Edinburgh: T & T Clark. pp. 372–404. ISBN 9781176278707.
- Walvoord, A commentary by John F. (1989). Daniel: the key to prophetic revelation (Moody Paperback ed.). Chicago: Moody Press. ISBN 9780802417534.