Cyclone Emnati

Intense Tropical Cyclone Emnati was a tropical cyclone that affected Madagascar, only two weeks after Cyclone Batsirai. The sixth tropical disturbance, the second tropical cyclone, and the second intense tropical cyclone of the 2021–22 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season, Emnati formed from a zone of disturbed weather that was first noted on 15 February 2022. It continued westward, and steadily intensified before getting named Emnati a day later. Due to present dry air and wind shear, the storm had struggled to intensify significantly, and it became a category 1-equivalent on the Saffir-Simpson Scale later. After it managed to close off its core from prohibiting factors, the storm quickly intensified into a category 4-equivalent days later, forming a small eye around its CDO. Emnati then underwent a lengthy eyewall replacement cycle, which strongly weakened the storm as it moved closer to Madagascar. Eventually, it weakened back to a category 1-equivalent cyclone before making landfall in the country.

Intense Tropical Cyclone Emnati
Intense tropical cyclone (SWIO scale)
Category 4 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Emnati 2022-02-20 1014Z.jpg
Intense Tropical Cyclone Emnati at peak intensity on 20 February 2022.
Formed15 February 2022
Dissipated26 February 2022
(Post-tropical after 24 February)
Highest winds10-minute sustained: 175 km/h (110 mph)
1-minute sustained: 215 km/h (130 mph)
Lowest pressure940 hPa (mbar); 27.76 inHg
Fatalities15
Damage$1 million (2022 USD)
Areas affectedMauritius, Réunion, Madagascar
Part of the 2021–22 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season

Meteorological historyEdit

 
Map plotting the storm's track and intensity, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale
Map key
  Tropical depression (≤38 mph, ≤62 km/h)
  Tropical storm (39–73 mph, 63–118 km/h)
  Category 1 (74–95 mph, 119–153 km/h)
  Category 2 (96–110 mph, 154–177 km/h)
  Category 3 (111–129 mph, 178–208 km/h)
  Category 4 (130–156 mph, 209–251 km/h)
  Category 5 (≥157 mph, ≥252 km/h)
  Unknown
Storm type
  Extratropical cyclone / Remnant low / Tropical disturbance / Monsoon depression

Emnati initially developed as a zone of disturbed weather where it moved westward over the open waters in the Indian Ocean. Environmental conditions were assessed as being marginally conducive for tropical cyclogenesis, with warm sea surface temperatures near 28 °C (82 °F) and low vertical wind, with the disturbance located about 420 nautical miles (780 km; 480 mi) to Diego Garcia south.[1][2] On the same day, the JTWC issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert on the system and by 21:00 UTC JTWC subsequently initiated advisories on the system and classified it Tropical Cyclone 13S.[3] The next day, the system organized into a tropical disturbance.[4] The system continued organizing, and at 12:00 UTC, MFR upgraded the system to a tropical depression.[5] By the 17th of February, the Météo-France La Réunion (MFR)[nb 1] reported that the system had become a moderate tropical storm and the Sub-Regional Tropical Cyclone Advisory Center in Mauritius named it Emnati.[7][8] On February 18, at 00:00 UTC the MFR marked Cyclone Emnati as a Severe Tropical Storm. Just three hours later, the JTWC upgraded Emnati to a Category 1 tropical cyclone on the Saffir–Simpson scale (SSHWS). Due to more favorable conditions, the Emnati intensified to a tropical cyclone. One day later, classified by JTWC as a category 2 tropical cyclone.[9] At 12:00 UTC, February 20, the cyclone reached its peak intensity as the JTWC upgraded to a category 4 tropical cyclone. The cyclone then weakened slowly due to an eyewall replacement cycle, and made landfall on February 23 as a category 1 tropical cyclone over Madagascar. Late on February 24, the JTWC issued their final warning on the system.

PreparationsEdit

 
Cyclone Emnati approaching Madagascar on 22 February

MauritiusEdit

A Class 4 warning was issued as the storm passed north of the island.[10]

RéunionEdit

A Red alert was declared in Réunion Island.[11]

MadagascarEdit

Red, yellow, and green alerts were issued as the cyclone neared the island.[12][13] Saturated grounds from Batsirai's effects earlier were expected to worsen potential rainfall damages. Very heavy rain was forecasted, with over 400–500 mm (15.7 - 19.6 in) falling in the projected landfall area. Flash flooding, and mudslides were warned.[14] A dire humanitarian situation in Madagascar was feared to worsen with Emnati's arrival. In response to the cyclone's passing, the IFRC had sought additional funds for relief efforts. The Secretary General of Malagasy Red Cross said the storm was a "double tragedy".[15] Humanitarian partners and other response teams were placed on Madagascar to help after the storm's landfall. Stocks of food and non-food items were also saved for those affected, mostly pre-positioned in Mananjary and Manakara. Planes and boats were also identified to help facilitate rapid damage assessments.[13] Floodwaters from various areas of 4-8 inch rainfall were expected to be accentuated by Madagascar's mountainous terrain as well, and storm surge and wind impacts were feared to be widespread.[16] More than 30,000 people were moved to safety areas prior to landfall.[17]

ImpactEdit

MauritiusEdit

Electric wires and trees were pulled out of the ground in some places. Gusts of 67 mph (108 km/h) were recorded on the island, along with some flooding and toppled structures.[18]

RéunionEdit

Heavy rain caused flooding in many coastal areas.[19] No deaths have been reported, and overall effects and damage was less than anticipated. 7,000 homes were out of power when the storm passed, and 3,400 suffered water cuts. Schools closed on 21 February due to the cyclone, as well as several roads.[11][20][21]

MadagascarEdit

The storm had struck the country only 18 days after Batsirai.[22]

Emnati made landfall in the country on midnight, 22 February, with winds of 84 mph (135 km/h). As of now, there have been 15 reported deaths from the storm in Madagascar.[23][24] Houses flooded, and the roofs of houses were said to be torn off. Electricity and water was also cut off from several communities.[17] A gendarmerie in Fitovinany recorded 624 damaged huts. More than 2,000 houses were damaged in Manakara, and 70 to 80 percent of Farafangana was estimated to be destroyed by Emnati; with witnesses detailing destroyed buildings, accommodation centers damaged, and roads being cut off. Communities within Vohipeno and Midongy-Atsimo districts were inundated by Emnati due to nearby rivers flooding. 44,000 people were displaced.[25] A 10-meter (33-foot) stretch of road was washed away by heavy rain.[26] The threat of a famine was feared to be worsened due to Emnati's effects on agriculture.[27]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Météo-France's meteorological office in Réunion (MFR) is the official Regional Specialized Meteorological Center for the South-West Indian Ocean, tracking all tropical cyclones south of the equator, from the east coast of Africa to 90° E.[6]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Significant Tropical Weather Advisory for the Indian Ocean (Report). United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 15 February 2022. Archived from the original on 15 February 2022. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  2. ^ "Bulletin for Cyclonic Activity and Significant Tropical Weather In the Southwest Indian Ocean 2022/02/15 AT 1200 UTC" (PDF). La Réunion, France: Météo-France. 15 February 2022. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 February 2022. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  3. ^ Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert (Invest 96S) (Report). United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 15 February 2022. Archived from the original on 15 February 2022. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  4. ^ "Tropical Disturbance 5 Warning Number 4/5/20212022" (PDF). La Réunion, France: Météo-France. 16 February 2022. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 February 2022. Retrieved 16 February 2022.
  5. ^ "Tropical Depression 5 Warning Number 6/5/20212022" (PDF). La Réunion, France: Météo-France. 16 February 2022. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 February 2022. Retrieved 16 February 2022.
  6. ^ Regional Association I Tropical Cyclone Committee (2021). "Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the South-West Indian Ocean" (PDF). World Meteorological Organization. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 September 2016. Retrieved 14 February 2022.
  7. ^ "Current Storm/Cyclone Moderate Tropical Storm Emnati 17 February 2022". Mauritius Meteorological Services. 17 February 2022. Archived from the original on 28 December 2021. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  8. ^ "Moderate Tropical Storm Emnati 5 Warning Number 8/5/20212022" (PDF). La Réunion, France: Météo-France. 17 February 2022. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 February 2022. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  9. ^ "01-20072008 Du 12/10/2007 Au 13/10/2007". www.meteo.fr. Archived from the original on 18 February 2022. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
  10. ^ Rédaction, La (20 February 2022). "Cyclone Emnati: École et travail demain ?". lexpress.mu (in French). Retrieved 11 March 2022.
  11. ^ a b Patou-Parvédy, Matthieu (19 February 2022). "Cyclone Emnati : La Réunion passe en alerte orange ce samedi à 17h". Linfo.re. Archived from the original on 20 February 2022. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
  12. ^ "Le cyclone tropical Emnati se rapproche de la Grande Ile". Linfo.re. Archived from the original on 20 February 2022. Retrieved 20 February 2022.
  13. ^ a b ReliefWeb, OCHA (22 February 2022). "SOUTHERN AFRICA: Cyclone Season Flash Update No. 8" (PDF). OCHA. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 February 2022. Retrieved 22 February 2022.
  14. ^ Forecast update: Tropical Cyclone Emnati approaching Madagascar landfall - CNN Video, archived from the original on 21 February 2022, retrieved 21 February 2022
  15. ^ "Madagascar: Red Cross teams rush to avert a tragedy as Tropical Cyclone Emnati approaches - Madagascar". ReliefWeb. Archived from the original on 21 February 2022. Retrieved 21 February 2022.
  16. ^ "Category 3 Tropical Cyclone Emnati headed for vulnerable Madagascar » Yale Climate Connections". Yale Climate Connections. 21 February 2022. Archived from the original on 22 February 2022. Retrieved 22 February 2022.
  17. ^ a b "'We need help': Another cyclone batters Madagascar". ABC News. Archived from the original on 23 February 2022. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
  18. ^ Roopun, Beekash (20 February 2022). "Emnati: les premiers dégâts…". lexpress.mu (in French). Retrieved 11 March 2022.
  19. ^ "Cyclone Emnati : l'alerte rouge a été déclenchée sur l'île de la Réunion". Franceinfo (in French). 20 February 2022. Archived from the original on 20 February 2022. Retrieved 20 February 2022.
  20. ^ "Cyclone Emnati à La Réunion : l'alerte rouge levée, aucun dégâts majeurs". Europe 1 (in French). Retrieved 11 March 2022.
  21. ^ Blandin, Geraldine (20 February 2022). "Cyclone Emnati: the Coastal Route closed on the sea side, the Salazie and Cilaos roads closed". FranceTvInfo.
  22. ^ "Cyclone Emnati lashes Madagascar". France 24. 23 February 2022. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
  23. ^ "Cyclone #Emnati initial updates (likely to change)". Twitter. 25 February 2022. Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  24. ^ Rabary, Lovasoa (23 February 2022). "Cyclone Emnati hits Madagascar; island's 4th major storm in a month". Reuters. Archived from the original on 23 February 2022. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
  25. ^ Ralitera, Miangaly (24 February 2022). "Cyclone - Emnati anéantit le Sud-Est". L'Express de Madagascar (in French). Retrieved 11 March 2022.
  26. ^ Ihariliva, Mirana (25 February 2022). "Route nationale 7 - Une déviation au niveau de Manombo be". L'Express de Madagascar (in French). Retrieved 11 March 2022.
  27. ^ Ralitera, Miangaly (4 March 2022). "Passage de cyclones - La famine menace le Sud-Est". L'Express de Madagascar (in French). Retrieved 11 March 2022.

External linksEdit