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English-based creole language

  (Redirected from Creole English)

An English-based creole language (often shortened to English creole) is a creole language derived from the English language, for which English is the lexifier. Most English creoles were formed in British colonies, following the great expansion of British naval military power and trade in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. The main categories of English-based creoles are Atlantic (the Americas and Africa) and Pacific (Asia and Oceania).

Contents

OriginEdit

It is disputed to what extent the various English-based creoles of the world share a common origin. The monogenesis hypothesis[1][2] posits that a single language, commonly called proto–Pidgin English, spoken along the West African coast in the early sixteenth century, was ancestral to most or all of the Atlantic creoles (the English creoles of both West Africa and the Americas).

Table of creole languagesEdit

Name Country Number of speakers[3] Notes

AtlanticEdit

Western CaribbeanEdit

Bahamian Creole   Bahamas 309,000 (2014)
Turks and Caicos Creole English   Turks and Caicos 10,700 (1995)
Jamaican Patois   Jamaica 2,670,000 (2001)~3,035,000
Belizean Creole   Belize L1 Users: 170,000 (2014) L2 Users: 300,000 (2014)
Miskito Coast Creole   Nicaragua 18,400 Dialect: Rama Cay Creole
Limonese Creole   Costa Rica 55,100 (1986)
Panamanian Creole English   Panama 268,000 (2000)
San Andrés–Providencia Creole   Colombia 33,000 (1995)

Eastern CaribbeanEdit

Virgin Islands Creole   US Virgin Islands

  British Virgin Islands

  Sint Maarten

  Saint-Martin

  Sint Eustatius

  Saba

52,300 (1980)~76,500
Anguillan Creole   Anguilla 11,500 (2001)
Antiguan Creole   Antigua and Barbuda 67,000 (2001)~147,520
Saint Kitts Creole   Saint Kitts and Nevis 39,000 (1998)
Montserrat Creole   Montserrat 3,820 (2011)
Vincentian Creole   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 138,000 (1989)
Grenadian Creole   Grenada 89,200 (2001)
Tobagonian Creole   Trinidad and Tobago 300,000 (2011)
Trinidadian Creole   Trinidad and Tobago 1,000,000 (2011)
Bajan Creole   Barbados 256,000 (1999)
Guyanese Creole   Guyana 650,000~682,000
Sranan Tongo   Suriname L1 users: 67,300 (2013)~410,700 L2 users: 300,000
Saramaccan   Suriname 14,100 (2013)~17,100
Ndyuka   Suriname 21,700 (2013)~39,700. Dialects: Aluku, Paramaccan
Kwinti   Suriname 200 (2005)

United StatesEdit

Afro-Seminole Creole   United States 200 (1990) Ethnic population: 500 (2007)
Gullah   United States 350 (2010) Ethnic population: 250,000

AfricaEdit

Krio   Sierra Leone 692,000~716,110 L2 users: 4,000,000 (1987)
Kreyol   Liberia 1,500,000 (L2; 1984)
Ghanaian Pidgin   Ghana 5,000,000 (2011) L2 users: 2,000 (1990)
Nigerian Pidgin   Nigeria 30,000,000 (2005)
Cameroonian Pidgin   Cameroon 2,000,000 (L2; 1989)
Equatorial Guinean Pidgin   Equatorial Guinea 6,000 (2011) L2 users: 70,000 (2011)

PacificEdit

Hawaiian Creole   Hawaii 600,000 (2012) 100,000 on the US mainland. L2 users: 400,000
Ngatikese Creole   Micronesia 700
Tok Pisin   Papua New Guinea 122,000 (2004) L2 users: 4,000,000
Pijin   Solomon Islands 24,400 (1999) L2 users: 307,000 (1999)
Bislama   Vanuatu 10,000 (2011) L2 users: 200,000
Pitcairn-Norfolk   Pitcairn

  Norfolk Island

430 (2011)~532 Almost no L2 users
Australian Kriol   Australia 4,200 (2006) L2 users: 10,000 (1991)
Torres Strait Creole   Australia 6,040 (2006)
Singlish   Singapore 2,000,000–3,000,000

MarginalEdit

OtherEdit

Not strictly creoles, but sometimes called thus:

External linksEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Hancock, I. F. (1969). "A provisional comparison of the English-based Atlantic creoles". African Language Review. 8: 7–72.
  2. ^ Gilman, Charles (1978). "A Comparison of Jamaican Creole and Cameroon Pidgin English". English Studies. 59: 57–65.
  3. ^ Simons, Gary F; Fennig, Charles D, eds. (2017). Ethnologue: Languages of the World (20th ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International.

Further readingEdit