Consultative Bureau

Consultative Bureau[1] (simplified Chinese: 咨议局; traditional Chinese: 諮議局) was a provincial public opinion institution (民意机构) established in 1909 in each province during the Constitutional Movement (立宪运动) in the late Qing Dynasty.

Consultative Bureau

Flag of China (1889–1912).svg
Flag of the Qing Empire
Shunzhi Consultative Bureau (example)
Provincial public opinion institution

According to the Regulation of the Consultative Bureau (咨议局章程), the meetings of the Bureau were divided into two types: regular meetings and temporary meetings.[2]


The Consultative Bureau was the local institution (建制) of the Advisory Council,[3] and it had a Speaker and two Deputy Speakers.

Except for Xinjiang, all provinces announced the establishment of Consultative Bureaus sequentially.[4] In total, there were 21 Consultative Bureaus throughout the Qing Dynasty.[5]

From March 1909, each province began to elect members of the Consultative Bureau one after another.[6] On October 14, with the exception of Xinjiang, all 21 provincial Consultative Bureaus were established and opened as scheduled, with more than 1,670 members elected.[7]

The election of members of the Consultative Bureau is the first election of public opinion representatives in the history of Chinese.[8]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Jinfan Zhang (20 February 2014). The Tradition and Modern Transition of Chinese Law. Springer. pp. 593–. ISBN 978-3-642-23266-4.
  2. ^ 20th Century Chinese Constitutionalism. Wuhan University Press. 2002. pp. 30–. ISBN 978-7-307-03488-4.
  3. ^ Shao Jian (2018). A Time of Regression: From Liang Qichao's Constitutionalism to the Democracy of the New Youth. Independent Writers Press. pp. 38-. ISBN 978-986-326-605-1.
  4. ^ "Modernizing Features of Constitutional Reform in the Late Qing Dynasty". Sohu. 2013-05-07.
  5. ^ Zhang Jinfan (2003). Modern Chinese Society and Legal Civilization. China University of Political Science and Law Press. pp. 223–. ISBN 978-7-5620-2482-8.
  6. ^ Founding of the Republic of China. Zhonghua Book Company. 1981. pp. 87–.
  7. ^ Li Renkai (1996). Modern Chinese Social Thought. Henan People's Publishing House. pp. 223–. ISBN 978-7-215-03482-2.
  8. ^ "The short-lived "Consultative Bureau"". People's Daily. 2013-09-16.