Columbus Zoo and Aquarium
The Columbus Zoo and Aquarium is a non-profit zoo located near Powell in Liberty Township, Delaware County, Ohio, United States, north of the city of Columbus. The land lies along the eastern banks of the O'Shaughnessy Reservoir on the Scioto River, at the intersection of Riverside Drive and Powell Road. It has a worldwide reputation, largely attributable to the efforts and promotion of director emeritus Jack Hanna. In 2009, it was named by the USA Travel Guide as the number one zoo in the United States. It was also ranked number one best zoo in 2012 by Besties Readers Choice.
|Location||Powell, Ohio, United States|
|Land area||234 ha (580 acres)|
|No. of animals||more than 7,000|
|No. of species||over 800|
|Major exhibits||North America, Heart of Africa, Asia Quest, Shores & Aquarium, Polar Frontier, Australia and the Islands, and Congo Expedition|
The Columbus Zoo is home to more than 7,000 animals representing over 800 species and sees over 2.3 million visitors annually. The animal exhibits are divided into regions of the world, with the zoo currently operating eight such regions. In addition the zoo owns an 18-hole golf course, known as the Safari Golf Club which encompasses 56.656 hectares (140 acres). The zoo also owns Zoombezi Bay which encompasses 9.187 hectares (22.70 acres) and Jungle Jack's Landing which encompasses 4.452 hectares (11 acres). In total, the zoo owns 234 hectares (580 acres) of land, with 164.424 hectares (406.30 acres) dedicated to the zoo itself.
The zoo operates its own conservation program, donating money to outside programs as well as participating in their own conservation efforts. Over the past five years the zoo has contributed over $3.3 million to more than 70 projects in 30 countries. The zoo also has a close working relationship with the Wilds, a 9,154-acre (37.04 km2) animal conservation center located in southeast Ohio and featured on the Columbus Zoo's website.
The first zoo in Columbus, the Columbus Zoological Company (not affiliated with today's Columbus Zoo), was located in the north Riverview neighborhood of Beechwold in Clintonville. The zoo opened in May 1905 but closed for unknown reasons only five months later in October 1905. The former monkey house can still be seen on the property of 150 West Beechwold Boulevard where it is used as a barn. The zoo's original brick entrance can also be seen on North High Street at Beechwold Road.
The present Columbus Zoo opened in 1927 as the Columbus Zoological Gardens. The city of Columbus took over management of the zoo in 1951, but later gave up ownership to the Zoological Park Association, Inc., a non-profit organization, in 1970. The city continued providing funds from the city's general fund, however, until 1986.
On December 22, 1956, Colo, a western lowland gorilla, became the world's first captive-born gorilla at the Columbus Zoo. When she died in January, 2017, at the age of 60, she was the oldest gorilla in human care. Colo's extended family includes one child, 10 grandchildren, four great grandchildren, and two great great grandchildren living in zoos throughout the country. The Columbus Zoo currently houses 15 gorillas, six of which are related to Colo. The Columbus Zoo has a gorilla breeding program, with 31 gorillas born at the zoo since 1956. Colo was named after Columbus, the city of her birth.
Jack Hanna became the director of the Columbus Zoo in 1978 and remained director until 1993. The zoo benefited greatly from his oversight, rising to national recognition during his tenure. Prior to his arrival, the zoo saw an average annual attendance of about 360,000. In addition, the animal facilities were in need of renovation. Hanna put an extensive amount of effort into turning the Columbus Zoo into a model facility, including personally picking up trash after hours. Cage enclosures were also removed during his time and replaced with more natural looking habitats. His enthusiasm, along with his national television recognition, helped attract more visitors to the zoo, with over 1.4 million visitors annually by 1992. Hanna was named director emeritus of the zoo in 1993, and continues to be the public face for the zoo in its marketing campaigns.
In 2004, voters passed a measure that would raise an estimated $180 million to expand the zoo over 10 years. The 120-acre (0.5 km2) expansion includes additional parking, Polar Frontier, an exhibit including polar bears and Arctic foxes, as well as Heart of Africa, the most recent exhibit including lions, antelope, cheetahs, giraffe, zebras, etc. To make room for these new exhibits, bordering Powell Road has been relocated around the eastern and southern border of the zoo. A new entrance was constructed along the new roadway, which opened in early 2008. Long-term plans include the possibility of a resort-style hotel to attract tourists along with its outdoor water-amusement park, Zoombezi Bay.
On June 28, 2009, Jeff Swanagan, the executive director of the zoo, died suddenly at the age of 51. Dale Schmidt, the zoo's chief operating officer, was named executive director on November 20, 2009.
The Columbus Zoo is divided into regions, each housing animals from a particular region of the world. Each region is themed for the particular area of the world they are representing, though older regions are themed less than the newly constructed ones. Food and souvenir shops are located throughout the zoo, each one also themed for the region the shop is in.
There are three modes of transportation through the zoo other than walking. These include a train that circles the North America region, a tram that borders the southern part of the North America Region that takes visitors to Polar Frontier, and a boat ride around the Islands of Southeast Asia region.
The North America region of the Columbus Zoo is the second-largest and the oldest. In total, North America contains 15 large exhibits featuring a wetlands area and an 10,000 sq ft (930 m2) migratory songbird aviary containing over 40 species. In addition to the exhibits, the North America region contains the train ride that circles the region and travels past the open plains exhibits.
Featured animals include: 
- Black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus)
- American beaver (Castor canadensis)
- Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baileyi)
- American black bear (Ursus americanus)
- Wolverine (Gulo gulo)
- North American river otter (Lontra canadensis)
- Bobcat (Lynx rufus)
- Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis)
- Cougar (Puma concolor)
- Moose (Alces americanus gigas & A. a. americana)
- Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana americana)
- American bison (Bison bison bison)
- Trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator)
- Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)
- Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)
Polar Frontier opened in May 2010 as an extension of the North America region, featuring animals native to colder climates including Arctic fox and brown bears. The region also marked the return of polar bears to the zoo, whose habitat includes a 167,000-gallon pool and an underwater viewing area. The center of the exhibit includes a Conservation/Education Building and a new play area. The zoo added a third polar bear in 2013 and further expanded Polar Frontier in 2014. In 2015, one of the bears in the Polar Frontier, Aurora, gave birth to a bear cub, which the zoo named Nora.
Featured animals include:
Asia Quest opened two phases in 2006. The region is an attempt to more fully immerse visitors into the exhibits, not only building larger and more attractive exhibits, but also melding them together with the scenery. Visitors entering Asia Quest pass a waterfall flanked by two habitats, travel through a cave containing the indoor habitats, exit into a Chinese forest, and finally enter a pheasant aviary designed to look like an abandoned Asian garden. Instead of fences, habitats are either recessed and separated via rock walls, or on ground level and separated by the rock walls and glass. Asia Quest also promotes donations for animal conservation, as many of the region's animals are threatened in the wild.
Featured animals include:
- Tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus cephalophus)
- Siberian musk deer (Moschus moschiferus)
- White-naped crane (Grus vipio)
- Red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis)
- Malaysian giant turtle (Orlitia borneensis)
- Silvery lutung (Trachypithecus cristatus)
- Water monitor (Varanus salvator)
- Reticulated python (Python reticulatus)
- Little golden-mantled flying fox (Pteropus pumilus)
- Large flying fox (Pteropus vampyrus)
- Sun bear (Helarctos malayanus euryspilus)
- Sloth bear (Melursus ursinus)
- Red panda (Ailurus fulgens)
- Reeves's muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi)
- Golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus)
- Swinhoe's pheasant (Lophura swinhoii)
- Reeve's pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii)
- Markhor (Capra falconeri)
- Pallas's cat (Otocolobus manul)
- Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica)
- Asian elephant (Elephas maximus)
- Black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis)
In March 2007, Fluffy, a reticulated python (Python reticulatus) and Guinness World Records holder for the longest snake in captivity, measuring 24 feet, was put on display at the zoo. In September 2007, the zoo purchased Fluffy from her owner, and she was on permanent display afterwards. On October 26, 2010, the 300 pound, 18-year-old snake died. A necropsy found a tumorous mass on one of her ovaries. The zoo has since acquired her daughter named Hanna.
Shores and aquariumEdit
The shores region is most well known for the fish and manatee aquariums, known as "Discovery Reef" and "Manatee Coast". In addition to the indoor aquariums, the shores region also features exhibits of American flamingos, American alligators, and Humboldt penguins.
Discovery Reef is an 88,000-US-gallon (330,000 l) saltwater aquarium and houses numerous species of fish, stingrays, sharks, and sea turtles. It also houses a live coral exhibit, one of the largest in the United States although the coral in the largest tank is synthetic.
Manatee Coast, which opened in 1999, is the cornerstone of the region, supporting the endangered West Indian manatees in a 192,000-US-gallon (730,000 l) indoor habitat. This habitat is one of only two outside of Florida to keep manatees, making it an especially popular exhibit. The building is also covered by a retractable roof, which creates an outdoor environment for up to five manatees during warm weather.
The Reptile Habitat is the first building encountered heading west after exiting the tunnel under Riverside Drive and is located within the shores region. It is a fully indoor facility, containing numerous snakes, terrapins, and tortoises. The Columbus Zoo has also bred many threatened reptile species, including Jamaican boas, Madagascar ground boas, yellow-spotted river turtles, Roti Island snake-necked turtles, and eastern plains garter snakes.
Featured animals include:
- West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus)
- Hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata)
- Brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis)
- Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti)
- Caribbean flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber)
- Roti Island snake-necked turtle (Chelodina mccordi)
- Yellow-spotted river turtle (Podocnemis unifilis)
- Barbour's map turtle (Graptemys barbouri)
- Fly-river turtle (Carettochelys insculpta)
- Alligator snapping turtle (′′Macrochelys temminckii)
- Pancake tortoise (Malacochersus tornieri)
- Coahuilan box turtle (Terrapene coahuila)
- Aldabra giant tortoise (Aldabrachelys gigantea)
- Madagascar ground boa (Boa madagascariensis)
- Jamaican boa (Epicrates subflavus)
- Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus)
- Blood python (Python curtus)
- Pine snake (Pituophis melanoleucus)
- Plains garter snake (Thamnophis radix)
- Black rat snake (Pantherophis obsoletus)
- King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah)
- Timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus)
- Aruba island rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus unicolor)
- Solomon Islands skink (Corucia zebrata)
- Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum)
- American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)
- Panamanian golden frog (Atelopus zeteki)
- Blue poison dart frog (Dendrobates tinctorius "azureus")
- Angelfish (Genus Pomacanthidae)
- Bonnethead shark (Sphyrna tiburo)
- Butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae)
- Cardinalfish (Apogonidae)
- Cownose ray (Rhinoptera bonasus)
- Clownfish (Genus Amphiprion)
- Zebra shark (Stegostoma fasciatum)
The African forest region, "Congo Expedition," opened in 2000 and showcases animals from the Central African rainforest, which includes numerous primates, hooved mammals, large cats, and many birds housed in an aviary. The highlight of the region is the primate area featuring three generations of western lowland gorillas, the progeny of Colo, the first gorilla to be born in captivity in the world.
The Columbus Zoo has a rapidly expanding group of bonobos, also known as pygmy chimpanzees. Bonobos are the closest living relative to humans and are only found at eight U.S. zoos and less than 20 worldwide zoos outside their native Democratic Republic of the Congo, where they are critically endangered.
On May 18, 2012, one of the zoo's gorillas, Mumbah, died of heart failure at the age of 47. Mumbah had been part of the Columbus Zoo since 1984, when he was acquired from an animal park in England.
Featured animals include:
- Mantled guereza (Colobus guereza)
- Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus)
- African leopard (Panthera pardus)
- Western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla)
- Red river hog (Potamochoerus porcus)
- Bonobo (Pan paniscus)
- Mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx)
- Okapi (Okapia johnstoni)
- Black duiker (Cephalophus niger)
Voyage to Australia and the IslandsEdit
The Australia region is located on the far west side of the zoo, lying along the east bank of the Scioto River. The "Roadhouse" nocturnal exhibit opened in November 2003, while the kangaroo walkabout, koala habitat, and Lorikeet Aviary opened in 2004. "Bob and Evelyn's Roadhouse" is an indoor nocturnal exhibit displaying animals from Southeast Asia, Australia, and New Zealand. The Roadhouse features animals including Indian crested porcupine, brown kiwi, and binturong. The final section of the Roadhouse is an indoor flight aviary displaying over twenty species of Asian and Australian birds. The regions feature habitat is the Kangaroo Walkabout exhibit, which houses red kangaroos and an eastern grey kangaroo. The habitat is at ground-level, which allows visitors to walk through the actual habitat along with the kangaroos. The Columbus Zoo is one of only eight US zoos to permanently house koalas and is one of the few US zoos to display the species in both outdoor and indoor habitats. The exhibit in the region is Lorikeet Garden featuring rainbow lorikeets. The exhibit allows visitors to purchase a cup of nectar and feed the birds. In 2019, the Tasmanian devil exhibit opened, featuring the Tasmanian devils.
Featured Roadhouse animals include:
- Tawny frogmouth (Podargus strigoides)
- Brush-tailed bettong (Bettongia penicillata)
- North Island brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli)
- Binturong (Arctictis binturong)
- Matschie's tree-kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei)
- Feathertail glider (Acrobates pygmaeus)
- Pygmy slow loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus)
- Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica)
- Southern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus latifrons)
- Laughing kookaburra (Dacelo novaeguineae)
Featured outdoor animals include:
- Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus)
- Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii)
- Eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus)
- Red kangaroo (Macropus rufus)
- Rainbow lorikeet (Trichoglossus moluccanus)
- Sulphur crested cockatoo (Cacatua galerita)
The Islands of Southeast Asia region opened in 2003. Similarly to Asia Quest, Islands of Southeast Asia attempts to be more immersive, melding the exhibits and scenery to create the feeling that the visitor is walking through one continuous exhibit. This is done mostly with man-made scenery and vegetation. Included in the man-made scenery is a waterway that flows around the region and carries the boat ride from which visitors can view the region's exhibits.
Featured animals include:
- Lar gibbon (Hylobates lar)
- Siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus)
- Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
- Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii)
- Oriental small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinerea)
- Black swan (Cygnus atratus)
- Dalmatian pelican (Pelecanus crispus)
- Painted stork (Mycteria leucocephala)
- Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis)
Heart of AfricaEdit
The "Heart of Africa" region is located to the north and east of the zoo. The area encompasses 43 acres (170,000 m2) of land, and feature many African plains animals. One exhibit in the new region are lions, which were moved in order to accommodate Asia Quest, as well as giraffes, cheetahs, zebras, and vervet monkeys. Following the design of recent exhibits such as the Islands of Southeast Asia, the African savanna attempts to merge habitats and scenery to make visitors feel as if they are on the plains. Other features including giraffe feedings, camel rides, as well as dining facilities.
Featured animals include:
- Dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius)
- African lion (Panthera leo)
- Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)
- Vervet monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops)
- Masai giraffe (Giraffa tippelskirchi)
- Reticulated giraffe (Giraffa reticulata)
- Grant's zebra (Equus quagga boehmi)
- Dama gazelle (Nanger dama)
- Thomson's gazelle (Eudorcas thomsonii)
- Slender-horned gazelle (Gazella leptoceros)
- Greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros)
- Blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus)
- Somali ostrich (Struthio molybdophanes)
- Grey crowned crane (Balearica regulorum)
- Saddle-billed stork (Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis)
- Helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris)
- African spurred tortoise (Centrochelys sulcata)
The centerpiece of the Heart of Africa exhibit is the Watering Hole, an open rotational enclosure containing a large pond. The exhibit is designed to accommodate many different species, and different animals rotate in and out throughout the day. Some of the zoo's species can only be viewed at the Watering Hole.
Featured Watering Hole animals include:
In the spring of 2000, the zoo added its restored 1914 Mangels-Illions carousel. This carousel had originally been built for the former Olentangy Park in Clintonville. When the park closed in 1938, the carousel was moved to Wyandot Lake where it continued operating for sixty years, though in deteriorating condition. In 1999, the carousel was removed from Wyandot Lake and underwent a million dollar restoration before being moved to a new location at the zoo. With 52 hand carved horses, 2 chariots, and a Wurlitzer #153 band organ (which plays upon request), this rare "grand carousel" in the Coney Island style is one of only a few manufactured by the William F. Mangels Company with wooden horses carved by M. C. Illions and Sons Carousell Works, and is thus known as a Mangels-Illions carousel. It was ridden 42,000 times in its first month of operation at the zoo, and celebrated its one millionth rider on July 28, 2004.
The zoo purchased Wyandot Lake at the end of 2006 and have renovated the park into "Zoombezi Bay". The new water park contains 17 major slides and attractions. The park opened in May 2008 and is accompanied by Jungle Jack's Landing, the dry ride park.
Jungle Jack's LandingEdit
When the zoo bought Wyandot Lake, it split the park into two sections. The new dry park, called Jungle Jack's Landing, features 16 rides and attractions, including the historical Sea Dragon roller coaster.
The Columbus Zoo and Aquarium runs a conservation program that funds multiple projects outside of the zoo. In 2010, the zoo provided more than $2 million worth of grants to support conservation projects worldwide. These monies come from fundraisers, visitor donations and privately raised funds. Projects the zoo supports include the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund, the International Elephant Foundation, and the Ohio Wildlife Center.
In an effort to increase funding for, and public awareness of, the conservation projects around the world, the Columbus Zoo has in recent years incorporated information about threatened and endangered species into exhibits. In addition to helping visitors become more aware, the zoo has also added donation boxes that help fund the many projects the Columbus Zoo supports.
The Columbus Zoo is also involved in conservation programs internally. Manatee Coast, while built as an exhibit, is also a rehabilitation facility for injured manatees. Due to the threatened status of manatees in the wild, Manatee Coast attempts to inform its visitors of the manatee's situation, with an entire room dedicated to manatee conservation. This room includes a video describing the manatee's natural habitat and what can be done to protect them.
The Columbus Zoo also runs a breeding program for Mexican wolves. This program has the goal of having a population of at least 100 wolves living in what was once their natural range. Mexican wolves became extinct in the wild in the mid-20th century due to being trapped, poisoned, and shot. Since the zoo became involved in 1992, 29 pups have been born at their facility.
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