Cloquet, Minnesota

Cloquet (/klˈk/ (listen) kloh-KAY) is a city in Carlton County, Minnesota, United States, at the junction of Interstate 35 and Minnesota State Highway 33. Part of the city lies within the Fond du Lac Indian Reservation and serves as one of the reservation's three administrative centers. The population was 12,568 at the 2020 census.[3]

Cloquet
Mookomaan-onigamiing
Downtown Cloquet
Downtown Cloquet
Location of the city of Cloquet within Carlton County, Minnesota
Location of the city of Cloquet
within Carlton County, Minnesota
Coordinates: 46°43′18″N 92°27′34″W / 46.72167°N 92.45944°W / 46.72167; -92.45944Coordinates: 46°43′18″N 92°27′34″W / 46.72167°N 92.45944°W / 46.72167; -92.45944
CountryUnited States
StateMinnesota
CountyCarlton
Incorporated (village)1884
Incorporated (city)1904
Government
 • MayorRoger Maki
Area
 • Total36.01 sq mi (93.27 km2)
 • Land35.22 sq mi (91.21 km2)
 • Water0.80 sq mi (2.06 km2)  2.14%
Elevation1,204 ft (367 m)
Population
 (2020)
 • Total12,568
 • Density356.87/sq mi (137.79/km2)
Time zoneUTC−6 (CST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
ZIP code
55720
Area code218
FIPS code27-12160
GNIS feature ID0641345[2]
Websitewww.ci.cloquet.mn.us

HistoryEdit

 
Former Con-Wed plant (now a USG Corporation facility) in Cloquet, 1973

Cloquet began as a group of small settlements around three sawmills: Shaw Town, Nelson Town, and Johnson Town. These became known as Knife Falls after a local waterfall over sharp slate rocks, and later as Cloquet. The Ojibwe in the area called the area Mookomaan-onigamiing, meaning "At the Knife Portage", as the portage to avoid Knife Falls connected the three communities. The area was platted in 1883 and the village of Cloquet was incorporated from the three settlements in 1884. It became a city with a mayor and city council in 1904. The word "Cloquet" first appeared on an 1843 map of the area by Joseph N. Nicollet, which named the Cloquet River, a tributary of the Saint Louis River, and the Cloquet Rapids to the north. "Cloquet" is a French surname, but historians have found no source for it. Some speculate that the river was named for the 19th-century French scientists Hippolyte and Jules Cloquet, and the settlement named for the river.[4]

The area was the site of the 1918 Cloquet Fire, which destroyed much of the town and killed approximately 500 people.

Cloquet is famed in American economic history because before and after World War II it was home of the nation's strongest consumers cooperatives. The Cloquet Coöperative Society (founded in 1910) operated two cooperative stores, which handled food, hardware, shoes, dry goods, and furniture. Other cooperative services included a building supply store, a coal yard, a mortuary, an auto repair shop and a gas service station.

In 1939, the co-op did 35% of the business in the town, and 18% in Carlton County. By the mid-1950s, the consumer society had a membership of 4,262 out of a population of 8,500. This was a national record, given that the total business of all American co-ops combined represented only 0.5% of the economy. The Finnish cooperative groups of the area also had an influence on the American cooperative movement in general.

In the 1970s the area of the city was increased to over ten times what it had been in 1970. Despite this, the population of the city still declined from 1970 to 1980, even as the number of separate residences increased.[5]

ArchitectureEdit

Cloquet is home to the R.W. Lindholm Service Station, the only gas station designed by architect Frank Lloyd Wright and a structure now on the National Register of Historic Places.

GeographyEdit

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 36.01 square miles (93.3 km2), of which 35.22 square miles (91.2 km2) is land and 0.8 square miles (2.1 km2) is water.[6]

Cloquet is along the Saint Louis River, 20 miles southwest of Duluth.

ClimateEdit

Cloquet has a Humid continental climate (Köppen Climate Classification Dfb) typical of its location in northern Minnesota, with warm summers and long, cold winters.

Climate data for Cloquet, Minnesota (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1900–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 52
(11)
57
(14)
79
(26)
88
(31)
94
(34)
98
(37)
105
(41)
98
(37)
96
(36)
86
(30)
72
(22)
57
(14)
105
(41)
Average high °F (°C) 18.2
(−7.7)
24.0
(−4.4)
36.8
(2.7)
50.4
(10.2)
64.3
(17.9)
73.5
(23.1)
78.5
(25.8)
76.2
(24.6)
67.2
(19.6)
51.7
(10.9)
35.0
(1.7)
22.7
(−5.2)
49.9
(9.9)
Daily mean °F (°C) 9.9
(−12.3)
14.3
(−9.8)
26.4
(−3.1)
39.1
(3.9)
51.4
(10.8)
60.7
(15.9)
66.3
(19.1)
64.6
(18.1)
56.4
(13.6)
43.0
(6.1)
28.4
(−2.0)
15.8
(−9.0)
39.7
(4.3)
Average low °F (°C) 1.7
(−16.8)
4.6
(−15.2)
16.1
(−8.8)
27.9
(−2.3)
38.4
(3.6)
47.8
(8.8)
54.0
(12.2)
53.0
(11.7)
45.6
(7.6)
34.3
(1.3)
21.9
(−5.6)
9.0
(−12.8)
29.5
(−1.4)
Record low °F (°C) −45
(−43)
−41
(−41)
−35
(−37)
−7
(−22)
8
(−13)
24
(−4)
30
(−1)
26
(−3)
19
(−7)
0
(−18)
−24
(−31)
−37
(−38)
−45
(−43)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 1.00
(25)
0.98
(25)
1.44
(37)
2.41
(61)
3.48
(88)
4.75
(121)
4.33
(110)
4.18
(106)
3.56
(90)
3.26
(83)
1.82
(46)
1.46
(37)
32.67
(830)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 13.5
(34)
13.5
(34)
10.3
(26)
6.4
(16)
0.3
(0.76)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
1.8
(4.6)
9.6
(24)
15.9
(40)
71.3
(181)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 9.8 8.4 8.6 9.9 11.9 13.3 12.2 10.7 11.1 12.1 9.6 11.1 128.7
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 12.3 9.2 5.6 2.6 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 6.9 12.7 50.6
Source: NOAA[7][8]

DemographicsEdit

Historical population
Census Pop.
188093
18902,5302,620.4%
19003,07221.4%
19107,031128.9%
19205,127−27.1%
19306,78232.3%
19407,3047.7%
19507,6855.2%
19609,01317.3%
19708,699−3.5%
198011,14228.1%
199010,885−2.3%
200011,2012.9%
201012,1248.2%
202012,5683.7%
U.S. Decennial Census[9]

2020 censusEdit

As of the census of 2020,[3] the population was 12,568. The population density was 356.9 inhabitants per square mile (137.8/km2). There were 5,399 housing units at an average density of 153.3 per square mile (59.2/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 80.0% White, 10.9% Native American, 0.8% Black or African American, 0.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.5% from other races, and 7.0% from two or more races. Ethnically, the population was 1.8% Hispanic or Latino of any race.

2010 censusEdit

As of the census[10] of 2010, there were 12,124 people, 4,959 households, and 3,126 families residing in the city. The population density was 344.4 inhabitants per square mile (133.0/km2). There were 5,235 housing units at an average density of 148.7 per square mile (57.4/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 84.4% White, 0.4% African American, 10.8% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.1% from other races, and 3.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.3% of the population.

There were 4,959 households, of which 32.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.1% were married couples living together, 14.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.6% had a male householder with no wife present, and 37.0% were non-families. 30.5% of all households were made up of individuals, and 12.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.96.

The median age in the city was 37 years. 25.5% of residents were under the age of 18; 8.9% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 25.5% were from 25 to 44; 25% were from 45 to 64; and 15.2% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48.7% male and 51.3% female.

2000 censusEdit

As of the census of 2000, there were 11,201 people, 4,636 households, and 2,967 families residing in the city. The population density was 317.9 inhabitants per square mile (122.7/km2). There were 4,805 housing units at an average density of 136.4 per square mile (52.7/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 88.21% White, 0.16% African American, 9.35% Native American, 0.39% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.13% from other races, and 1.75% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.63% of the population. 16.0% were of German, 15.4% Finnish, 12.4% Norwegian, 9.8% Swedish and 6.1% Polish ancestry.

There were 4,636 households, out of which 30.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.1% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.0% were non-families. 31.0% of all households were made up of individuals, and 14.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.96.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 25.6% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 21.4% from 45 to 64, and 16.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.1 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $35,675, and the median income for a family was $47,799. Males had a median income of $40,140 versus $26,144 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,812. About 7.7% of families and 9.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.7% of those under age 18 and 12.4% of those age 65 or over.

InfrastructureEdit

Major highwaysEdit

EducationEdit

Most of Cloquet is zoned to Cloquet Public School District; small portions are zoned to Scanlon, Minnesota.[11]

There is a K-12 tribal school, Fond du Lac Ojibwe School, affiliated with the Bureau of Indian Education (BIE). Washington Elementary was also recognized by the Minnesota Board of excellence for the great teaching and staff sometime between 2018-2020

Notable peopleEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "2020 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 24, 2022.
  2. ^ a b U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Cloquet, Minnesota
  3. ^ a b "2020 Decennial Census: Cloquet city, Minnesota". data.census.gov. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  4. ^
    • O'Meara, Walter (1974). We Made It Through the Winter: A Memoir of Northern Minnesota Boyhood. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society. pp. 2, 115.
    • Carroll, Francis M. (1987). Crossroads in Time: A History of Carlton County, Minnesota. Cloquet, Minnesota: The Carlton County Historical Society. pp. 203–5.
    • Luukkonen, Larry; Wisuri, Marlene (2004). A Hometown Album: Cloquet's Centennial Story. Cloquet, Minnesota: Carlton County Historical Society. pp. 16–18.
  5. ^ Guide of CLoquet, Minnesota
  6. ^ "2020 Gazetteer Files". census.gov. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  7. ^ "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 23, 2021.
  8. ^ "Station: Cloquet, MN". U.S. Climate Normals 2020: U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1991-2020). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 23, 2021.
  9. ^ United States Census Bureau. "Census of Population and Housing". Retrieved June 9, 2014.
  10. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-11-13.
  11. ^ "2020 CENSUS - SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP: Carlton County, MN" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2021-08-05. Retrieved 2021-08-04.
  12. ^ EHN, Reference Desk. "Library Research Guides: Lawrence R. Yetka, Associate Justice 1973-1993: Biography". mncourts.libguides.com. Retrieved 2021-03-24.
  • Florence C. Parker, The First 125 Years. A History of Distributive and Service Cooperation in the United States, 1829-1954 (Superior WI: CLUSA, 1956).

External linksEdit