Chitnis Bakhar

Shakakarte Chhatrapati Shri Shivaji Maharaj yanche Saptaprakaranatmak Charitra,[1] better known as Chitnis Bakhar, is a Marathi language biography of Shivaji, the founder of the Maratha Empire. It was written by Malhar Ramaaao Chitnis, a biographer and historian. His great-grandfather was the "celebrated" chitnis under Shivaji.[2] The biography had been ordered to be written by king Shahu II of Satara, but the work was completed after his death in 1808, during 1810–1811.[3] The author wrote seven bakhars (chronicles) in total, including six biographies of the Maratha kings (chhatrapatis), and a treatise on political diplomacy('Rajniti') which he based on Sanskrit Nitishastras and other old Sanskrit literature.[2][4][5]

Chitnis Bakhar
AuthorMalhar Ram Rao Chitnis
Original titleShakakarte Chhatrapati Shri Shivaji Maharaj yanche Saptaprakaranatmak Charitra
SubjectBiography of Shivaji
Publication date

Chitnis Bakhar is not arranged chronologically, and does not cite any sources.[3] The text glorifies Shivaji with narratives of his early life, but these narratives are not substantiated by other sources.[6] Historian Jadunath Sarkar dismissed it as unreliable for the purposes of history, stating that "the book is incorrect, rambling or pure guess work in many places, with not even the idea of correct chronology."[7]


  1. ^ Prachi Deshpande (2007). Creative Pasts: Historical Memory and Identity in Western India, 1700-1960. Columbia University Press. p. 220. ISBN 978-0-231-51143-8.
  2. ^ a b Amaresh Datta (1987). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: A-Devo. Sahitya Akademi. p. 330. ISBN 978-81-260-1803-1.
  3. ^ a b Dinesh Chandra Verma (1974). History of Bijapur. Indian Institute of Islamic Studies / Kumar Bros. p. 282. ISBN 9780883864982.
  4. ^ Ashok S. Chousalkar (10 September 2018). Revisiting the Political Thought of Ancient India: Pre-Kautilyan Arthashastra Tradition. SAGE Publishing India. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-93-5280-770-3.
  5. ^ Surendra Nath Sen (1976). Administrative System of the Marathas. K. P. Bagchi. p. 2. His Rajniti is a treatise on polity , in which he compiles the theories of public administration from old Sanskrit works . It could not , therefore , have any bearing on the actual government of Maharashtra as it then existed
  6. ^ Siba Pada Sen (1975). History in Modern Indian Literature. Institute of Historical Studies. p. 148.
  7. ^ Suresh Kumar Srivastava (1989). Sir Jadunath Sarkar, the Historian at Work. Anamika. p. 59. ISBN 978-81-85150-12-3.