China Railways HXD2

The HXD2 locomotives are a series of related locomotive classes built by CNR Datong Electric Locomotive and Alstom. The locomotives designs are based on the Alstom Prima electric locomotives, and are a product of a cooperation agreement signed between the two companies in 2004.[11][12] All locomotives are intended for heavy freight work, including coal trains on the Datong Qinhuangdao line (Daqin Railway).

HXD2-001 twin unit
Type and origin
Power typeElectric
BuilderAlstom (initially)
CNR Datong Electric Locomotive / Yongji Xinshisu Electric Equipment[1]
ABB traction transformers,[2]
Total producedHXD2 : 180[2]
HXD2.1 : 280[2]
HXD2.6 : 40[2]
HXD2.7 : 50[2]
HXD2B : 500[2]
HXD2C : 220[3]
HXD2F : 2 (as of 2014)[4]
 • AAR
  • HXD2, HXD2F : 2(B-B)
  • HXD2B, HXD2C: C-C
 • UIC
Gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)
Minimum curve125 m (410 ft)
Wheelbasebogies :
HXD2 : 2.600 m (8 ft 6.4 in)
HXD2B, HXD2C : 2.250 m (7 ft 4.6 in) + 2.000 m (6 ft 6.7 in)
Lengthcoupler distance :
HXD2 : 2x19.025 m (62 ft 5.0 in)
HXD2B, HXD2C : 22.960 m (75 ft 3.9 in)
Width2.850 m (9 ft 4.2 in)
Loco weightHXD2: 2x92 t (91 long tons; 101 short tons) (200 t or 200 long tons or 220 short tons*)
HXD2B: 150 t (150 long tons; 170 short tons)
HXD2C: 138 t (136 long tons; 152 short tons) (150 t or 150 long tons or 170 short tons*)
HXD2F : 216 t (213 long tons; 238 short tons) (240 tonnes*)
Electric system/s25 kV 50 Hz AC Catenary
Current pickup(s)Pantograph
Loco brakePneumatic dynamic[5]
Train brakesPneumatic
Performance figures
Maximum speed120 km/h (75 mph) (operation)
Power outputHXD2 : 10 MW (13,000 hp)
HXD2B : 9.6 MW (12,900 hp)
HXD2C : 7.2 MW (9,700 hp)
HXD2F : 9.6 MW (12,900 hp)
Tractive effortstarting :
HXD2: 760 kN (170,000 lbf)*, 700 kN (160,000 lbf)
HXD2B:584 kN (131,000 lbf)
HXD2C: 570 kN (130,000 lbf)*, 520 kN (120,000 lbf)
HXD2B:554 or 514 kN (125,000 or 116,000 lbf) @65 or 70 km/h (40 or 43 mph) (25 or 23t axleoad)
HXD2B:455 kN (102,000 lbf) @76 km/h (47 mph)
HXD2C : 400 or 370 kN (90,000 or 83,000 lbf) @ 65 or 70 km/h (40 or 43 mph) (25 or 23 t or 25 or 23 long tons or 28 or 25 short tons axleload)
Brakeforceregenerative :
HXD2 : 10MW max 473 kN (106,000 lbf) max.[5]
HXD2B : 9.6 MW (12,900 hp) max 400 kN (90,000 lbf) max[6]
HXD2C : 7.2 MW (9,700 hp) max approximately 400 kN (90,000 lbf) max*.
  • When fully ballasted
    Sources: (except where noted)
    HXD2F [4]

The original HXD2 locomotives are twin unit Bo′Bo′+Bo′Bo′ vehicles whereas the HXD2B and HXD2C versions are single unit Co′Co′ machines. At the time of their construction the HXD2 and HXD2B locomotives were amongst the most powerful locomotives in the world. The HXD2C is similarly specified to the HXD2B but of reduced power, and with increased localisation of components for lower cost.

The HXD2 was originally described as the DJ4-6000 class.[13]

Variants of the type were produced for railways other than China Railway: in 2010 Belarus state railways ordered a HXD2 twin unit locomotive variant (BCG-1); and in 2012 Shenhua Group also ordered twin section locomotives.

In 2012 CNR Datong announced a new sub-version of the HXD2 class, built using fully localised production; the HXD2-1000 series. In 2014 a new localised variant, in 2(Bo′Bo′) wheel arrangement and 9.6MW power, with axle load of 27tonnes (up to 30 tonnes on specialised line) was unveiled, designated HXD2F, and officially nicknamed 超级大力士.



The locomotives are designed for heavy haul freight applications (up to 7,000 t or 6,900 long tons or 7,700 short tons train weights), and to be capable of multiple working of three locomotives. The design is also specified for temperatures down to −40 °C (−40 °F).[14]

The locomotive is ballasted to a 25 t (24.6 long tons; 27.6 short tons) axle load - a reduction to 23 t (22.6 long tons; 25.4 short tons) axle load with reduced starting tractive effort is optional.[7]

An (€350 million) order for 180 locomotives was placed (2005),[2][15] of which the initial 12 would be made in France, then 24 supplied for assembly, the remainder being produced in China.[1] The locomotives are used primarily for coal transportation,[16] specifically on the Datong - Qinhuangdao railway line.[1]

The first China built locomotive was produced May 23, 2007.[15]

In 2010 the locomotives began to be used on coal trains from Inner Mongolia.[17]


The main structural component is an integrated welded steel main bean and floor, with load bearing side sills. The side walls are of corrugated metal, and the roof of the locomotive is removable. The structure is designed for loads of 3,600 kN (810,000 lbf) in tension and 2,500 kN (560,000 lbf) in compression. The couplers are designed for up to 4,000 kN (900,000 lbf) force.[8]

The drivers cabins are designed for single driver operation. Driver facilities include a separate air-conditioned/heated area with refrigerator, cooking and washing facilities, and seating and beds.[8]

The locomotives use asynchronous AC electric motor technology, which drives the axles by a nose suspended drive. The bogies are of welded steel construction, with tractive forces transmitted by a low mounted drawbar. The electrical system consists of a transformers based on ABB Group products with 4 windings for electric traction power supply per transformer. Traction inverters are IGBT semiconductor device based, and of the Alstom ONIX type - each traction motor has a separate inverter/rectifier electrical power system. Electrical power for auxiliary devices is supplied via IGBT converters powered from the same intermediate DC power supply used to power the traction motors. Computer control and monitoring systems are from the Alstom AGATE[i] product range.[8]


In August 2012 CNR Datong announced the production of a new variant of its twin section, 8 axle, 10MW freight locomotive using domestically produced traction and control systems; the first unit was numbered HXD2-1001.[19] The two first units have corrugated sides, following ones have smooth sides.


From 2014 CNR Dalian delivered 40 HXD2 quite similar to series HXD2-1000.


From 2012 CNR Datong delivered 50 HXD2 quite similar to both first HXD2-1000 at the operator Shenhua Mining. Minor differences in cabin form.


In April 2014 two indigenous two-unit (Bo′Bo′)-(Bo′Bo′) locomotives were unveiled by CNR Datong, nicknamed “超级大力士” (trans. 'Super hercules" or "Super strongman"). The locomotives had an axle load of 27–30 tonnes (27–30 long tons; 30–33 short tons) for higher tractive effort, with power output of 9.6 MW (12,900 hp).[4]


In November 2015 two indigenous two-unit (Bo′Bo′)-(Bo′Bo′) locomotives were unveiled by CNR Datong. The locomotives had an axle load of 18 tonnes (18 long tons; 20 short tons) for higher speed, with continuous power output of 11.2 MW (15,000 hp). It is designed for 200 km/h, but first used until 160 km/h.

Related ordersEdit

In October 2010 Belorusskaja Železnaja Doroga ordered 12 units of a derived variant of the HXD2 two-section locomotive,[20] to be designated BCG-1.[21]

In 2012 CNR Datong supplied the Chinese mining operation, Shenhua Group, with two 9.6 MW (12,900 hp), twin section, 120 kilometres per hour (75 mph), eight-axle locomotives, with traction equipment supplied by Bombardier. The locomotive type is derived from technology used in the 'Harmony' (HXD) series, and has been named "超级大力士",[22] (literal: "Super Strongman").

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ AGATE : Advanced Generic Alstom Transport Electronics[18]


  1. ^ a b c "Alstom shares heavy haul build with Datong". Railway Gazette International. 1 March 2006. European electrics.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "China's rail revolution" (PDF),, ABB Group, Growth in freight transportation, p.21
  3. ^ Sources:
  4. ^ a b c Sources:
  5. ^ a b Jean-Marc Allenbach, "BoBo+BoBo CR HXD2 (Spec Sheet)" (PDF), (in French)
  6. ^ Jean-Marc Allenbach, "CoCo CR HXD2b (Spec Sheet)" (PDF), (in French)
  7. ^ a b "HXD2型大功率交流传动电力机车". (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 4 October 2011. Retrieved 6 February 2011. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  8. ^ a b c d "HXD2型电力机车". (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 6 February 2011. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  9. ^ "HXD2B型大功率交流传动电力机车". (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2011-10-04. Retrieved 2011-02-06.
  10. ^ "HXD2C型大功率交流传动电力机车". (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 4 October 2011. Retrieved 6 February 2011. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  11. ^ "Alstom ruling awaited". Railway Gazette International. 1 July 2004. Alstom announced on June 11 that it had signed an agreement to co-operate in the manufacture of locomotives with CNR Datong Electric Locomotive Co in China..
  12. ^ Murray Hughes (1 March 2006). "Tide of technology pours into China". Railway Gazette International. European electrics.
  13. ^ "和谐号CRH系列与和谐HX系列" (in Chinese). 10 July 2009. 「和諧」型系列机车車款如下:. Retrieved 6 February 2011. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  14. ^ "HXD2型电力机车". (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 6 February 2011. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  15. ^ a b 杨雄京 (Jing Yang Xiong) (31 May 2007). "9,600 kW (12,900 hp) electric locomotive rolled out". Archived from the original on 4 October 2011. Retrieved 6 February 2011.
  16. ^ 北车造和谐2型电力机车通过2万吨重载牵引试验. (in Chinese). 21 January 2008.
  17. ^ 北车制造和谐2型机车助力蒙煤外运传捷报. (in Chinese). 30 December 2010. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 6 February 2011.
  18. ^ Christoph Loch (2003). Industrial excellence: management quality in manufacturing. Springer. p. 64. ISBN 9783540002543.
  19. ^ Sources:
  20. ^ "World rolling stock market December 2010". Railway Gazette International. 14 December 2010. Belarus.
  21. ^ "China Northern signs European locomotive order". Railway Gazette International. 27 April 2010.
  22. ^ Sources: