Also, this article is about the literary technique. For the mathematics theory, see Ring theory
This article needs attention from an expert in literature.(February 2012)
Chiastic structure, or chiastic pattern, is a literary technique in narrative motifs and other textual passages. An example of chiastic structure would be two ideas, A and B, together with variants A' and B', being presented as A,B,B',A'. Alternative names include ring structure, because the opening and closing 'A' can be viewed as completing a circle, palistrophe, or symmetric structure. It may be regarded as chiasmus scaled up from clauses to larger units of text.
These often symmetrical patterns are commonly found in ancient literature such as the epic poetry of the Iliad and the Odyssey. Various chiastic structures are also seen in the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament, where biblical writers used it to illustrate or highlight details of particular importance. Chiastic structures are also seen in the Book of Mormon.
Chiastic structures also appear in Ancient Greek sculpture. The contrapposto technique of sculpture in Ancient Greek sculpture often lead to this Chiastic structure, such as in the Diadumenos of Polykleitos.
The term chiastic derives from the mid-17th century term chiasmus, which refers to a crosswise arrangement of concepts or words that are repeated in reverse order. Chiasmus derives from the Greek word khiasmos, a word that is khiazein, marked with the letter khi. From khi comes chi.
Chi is made up of two lines crossing each other as in the shape of an X. The line that starts leftmost on top, comes down, and is rightmost on the bottom, and vice versa. If one thinks of the lines as concepts, one sees that concept A, which comes first, is also last, and concept B, which comes after A, comes before A. If one adds in more lines representing other concepts, one gets a chiastic structure with more concepts. See Proverbs 1:20-33; vs 20-21=A, v 22=B, v 23=C, vs 24-25=D, vs 26-28=E, vs 29-30=D', v 31=C', v 32=B', v 33=A' 
Oral literature is especially rich in chiastic structure, possibly as an aid to memorization. In his study of the Iliad and the Odyssey, Cedric Whitman, for instance, finds a chiastic structure "of the most amazing virtuosity" that simultaneously performed both aesthetic and mnemonic functions, permitting the oral poet to easily recall the basic formulae of the composition during performances.
Use in Hebrew BibleEdit
In 1986, William H. Shea proposed that the Book of Daniel is composed of a double-chiasm. He argued that the chiastic structure is emphasized by the two languages that the book is written in: Aramaic and Hebrew. The first chiasm is written in Aramaic from chapters 2-7 following an ABC...CBA pattern. The second chiasm is in Hebrew from chapters 8-12, also using the ABC...CBA pattern. However, Shea represents Daniel 9:26 as "D", a break in the center of the pattern.
Gordon Wenham has analyzed the Genesis Flood narrative and has shown that it is essentially an elaborate chiasm. Based on the earlier study of grammatical structure by F. I. Andersen, Wenham illustrated a chiastic structure as displayed in the following two tables.
|A: Noah and his sons (Gen 6:10)
A: Noah and his sons (9:18,19a)
Within this overall structure, there is a numerical mini-chiasm of 7s, 40s, and 150s:
|α: Seven days waiting to enter Ark (7:4)
α': Second seven days waiting for dove (8:12)
The two mentions of the 150 days refer to the same period, and the first 40 days (7:13,17) are part of the 150 days. All this is consistent with the date in 8:4. There was no compelling reason to repeat the first 7-day figure of waiting to enter the Ark except for the corresponding two 7-day figures for the dove. The second mention of the 150 days was also because of the chiasmus. The chiastic structure explains the repetition of these figures. Before these ancient literary conventions were recognized, followers of the Documentary Hypothesis explained the repetition by hypothesizing two different authors or redactors (J or Jahwist and P or Priestly sources). The repetition may also show the literary artistry of a single author or editor, either working from one tradition or weaving together the J and P sources in chiastic fashion.
Use in the QurʾānEdit
Surah al-Baqarah, which we are going to use as a case study in this article, happens to be the longest chapter of the Qur’an and was revealed over a span of over nine years. Surah Al-Baqarah consists of 286 verses and can be divided into nine main sections based on theme/topic (verse numbers in parenthesis):
|A: Faith vs. unbelief (1 – 20).
A: Faith vs. unbelief (285 – 286).
A noteworthy point is that the middle of Surah Al-Baqarah, the 143rd verse, mentions an important turning point for the Muslims:
This turning point was the change in qiblah, the direction of the daily prayers, from Jerusalem to Makkah. This represented a big test for the believers. We find the mention of this important turning point in exactly the middle of the chapter. Moreover this verse even contains the word ‘middle’!
Finally, it’s worth paying special attention to a particular verse of Surah al-Baqarah, the 255th verse known as ‘Ayat al-Kursi’. This verse is considered the most excellent verse of the Qur’an, according to Prophet Muhammad. Its memorisation is highly encouraged, and it just so happens that it too exhibits a ring composition:
Notice that the middle of Ayat al-Kursi mentions ‘before’ and ‘after’ which could be yet another allusion to the mirroring of ring composition.
It’s worth highlighting that not only does Ayat al-Kursi contain its own ring composition, but it is also positioned as a sub ring within two larger rings – a concentric ring composition:
Raymond K Farrin, author of “Surat al-Baqarah – A Structural Analysis”, concludes on Surah al-Baqarah’s ring composition:
This precision in the arrangement of the verses is in fact astonishing when we consider the timing of the revelation of the verses of the Qur’an. As Dr Abdullah Draz, Professor of Islamic Studies, eloquently puts it:
To better understand Dr Draz’s point, let’s consider the example of constructing a building. Imagine two people being supplied with materials and being tasked with building a house. The first person is experienced; they know that in order to design a well-constructed house, they need to go about the task in an organised fashion. They first wait until all of the materials, such as the bricks, cement, wood and nails, have been supplied. Then they would review the materials at their disposal, assessing their quantities, sizes and shapes so that they can determine how they will best fit together. Now that they have a complete picture of the constituent parts of the house, only then do they draw up a design plan. Making a design plan cannot precede the supply and assessment of the materials because the plan depends upon the materials available. Such an approach stands a good chance of resulting in a well-constructed house.
The second person is inexperienced and they go about building the house in a disorganised fashion. Rather than waiting until they receive all of the materials and then drawing up a design plan, they instead decide to build a house without complete knowledge of its constituent parts, constructing it piecemeal, adding to it bit by bit, as and when they receive the individual materials. What are the chances that this approach will result in a well-constructed house like that of the organised person? Unlike the organised approach where each part is placed in its best possible position, instead you have a situation where it seems each part is placed arbitrarily, depending on the order in which they were received. In such circumstances you would most likely end up with a very poorly designed house, liable to collapse at any time. It is highly unlikely, perhaps even impossible, that this disorganised approach would end up with the same stunningly designed house that the organised person constructed.
Yet this is exactly what we find with the structure of the Qur’an. The builder in our example is Muhammad. The house that he began to build since its first bricks were given to him is the Qur’an. Ever since he received its early verses, he started to arrange its parts. The rooms and bricks in our construction example are the chapters and verses of the Qur’an. He could never have a design plan in place for the Qur’an because the revelation of many of its verses depended on events that were out of his control, such as the social developments and religious and worldly challenges that he faced throughout his 23 years of Prophethood. For example, believers would come up to him and question him on a particular matter, or his enemies would challenge him. Immediately the responses in the form of revelation would descend on him, addressing the specific situation that he was facing.
Use in Book of MormonEdit
Chaism in 3 Nephi 5 - Covenant Promises of Jacob
A: as surely as the Lord liveth (3 Nephi 5:24)
B: gather in from the four quarters of the earth (3 Nephi 5:24)
C: restoring all the house of Jacob unto the knowledge of the covenant (3 Nephi 5:25)
C': then shall they know their Redeemer, who is Jesus Christ (3 Nephi 5:26)
B': gathered in from the four quarters of the earth unto their own land (3 Nephi 5:26)
A': as the Lord liveth (3 Nephi 5:26)
Chaism in Alma 36 - The Conversion of Alma
A: inasmuch as ye shall keep the commandments of God ye shall prosper in the land (Alma 36:1)
B: remembering the captivity of our fathers (Alma 36:2)
C: whosoever shall put their trust in God shall be supported in their trials (Alma 36:3)
I racked, even with the pains of a damned soul (Alma 36:12)
I remembered...the coming of one Jesus Christ, a Son of God, to atone for the sins of the world (Alma 36:17)
O Jesus, thou Son of God, have mercy on me (Alma 36:19)
I could remember my pains no more (Alma 36:19)
C': I have been supported under trials (Alma 36:27)
B': delivered them out of bondage and captivity (Alma 36:29)
A': inasmuch as ye shall keep the commandments of God ye shall prosper in the land (Alma 36:30)
In literary texts with a possible oral origin, such as Beowulf, chiastic or ring structures are often found on an intermediate level, that is, between the (verbal and/or grammatical) level of chiasmus and the higher level of chiastic structure such as noted in the Torah. John D. Niles provides examples of chiastic figures on all three levels. He notes that for the instances of ll. 12–19, the announcement of the birth of (Danish) Beowulf, are chiastic, more or less on the verbal level, that of chiasmus. Then, each of the three main fights are organized chiastically, a chiastic structure on the level of verse paragraphs and shorter passages. For instance, the simplest of these three, the fight with Grendel, is schematized as follows:
- Grendel approaching
- Grendel rejoicing
- Grendel devouring Handscioh
- B: Grendel's wish to flee ("fingers cracked")
- C: Uproar in hall; Danes stricken with terror
- HEOROT IN DANGER OF FALLING
- C': Uproar in hall; Danes stricken with terror
- C: Uproar in hall; Danes stricken with terror
- B': "Joints burst"; Grendel forced to flee
- Grendel slinking back toward fens
- Beowulf rejoicing
- Beowulf left with Grendel's arm
Finally, Niles provides a diagram of the highest level of chiastic structure, the organization of the poem as a whole, in an introduction, three major fights with interludes before and after the second fight (with Grendel's mother), and an epilogue. To illustrate, he analyzes Prologue and Epilogue as follows:
A: Panegyric for Scyld
- D': Beowulf's order to build his barrow
- C': History of Geats after Beowulf ("messenger's prophecy")
- B': Beowulf's funeral
A': Eulogy for Beowulf
A: Satan's sinful actions (Books 1–3)
- B: Entry into Paradise (Book 4)
- C: War in heaven (destruction) (Books 5–6)
- C': Creation of the world (Books 7–8)
- B': Loss of paradise (Book 9)
A': Humankind's sinful actions (Books 10–12):141
- The term "palistrophe" was coined in: McEvenue, Sean E. (1971), The Narrative Style of the Priestly Writer, Rome: Biblical Institute Press, OCLC 292126.[page needed]
- "US English dictionary", OxfordDictionaries.com, Oxford University Press, retrieved 2014-07-10
- Garrett 1993, p. 71
- Whitman, Cedric M. (1958), Homer and the Heroic Tradition, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, OCLC 310021.
- Shea 1986[page needed]
- Gordon J. Wenham, "The Coherence of the Flood Narrative" Vetus Testamentum 28 (1978) 336–348.
- F. I. Andersen, The Sentence in Biblical Hebrew (The Hague, 1974).
- Niles 1979, pp. 924–35
- Niles 1979, pp. 924–25
- Niles 1979, pp. 925–6
- Niles 1979, p. 930
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