Channel 2 (Israel)
Channel 2 (Hebrew: ערוץ שתיים, translit. Arutz Shtaim), also called "The Second Channel" (Hebrew: הערוץ השני, translit. HaArutz HaSheni) was an Israeli commercial television channel. Its production studios are located in Neve Ilan, near Jerusalem.
|Launched||23 October 1986
4 November 1993 (official launch)
|Closed||1 November 2017(split into 2 channels)|
|Owned by||The Second Authority for Television and Radio|
|Picture format||16:9 (576i, SDTV)|
|Amos-3 FTA||11658 H / 8520 / 2/3|
The idea of a second television channel in Israel was first mooted in 1978 when the Israeli government set up a special committee headed by Haim Kovarsky (he) to explore the establishment of a second channel that would not be under supervision of the Israel Broadcasting Authority (IBA) and would be financed by advertising, however the idea of commercial television was rejected by the National Religious Party (NRP), which was part of the ruling coalition at that time. On 23 October 1986, Amnon Rubinstein, the then Minister of Communications, ordered the start of "experimental transmissions" on a second channel, claiming that unless these transmissions had started, the frequencies would have been used by TV networks in neighbouring countries. The first transmissions were aired on UHF channel 21 from Mount Eitanim transmission tower situated on the hills west of Jerusalem. These transmissions, which initially included 2–3 hours of video clips every evening originating from a private TV studio in Jerusalem, expanded gradually to include a full program lineup. At that time the IBA was legally responsible for the channel, but it actually saw it as unexpected competition, tried to prevent its inauguration, and was reluctant to take responsibility for its broadcasts.
In 1986 the Knesset started discussing the law forming the Second Israeli Broadcasting Authority, and in 1990, the Knesset passed a law that paved the way for the establishment of commercial television in Israel. The goal was to enhance pluralism and create competition. Channel 2 began broadcasting on 4 November 1993. Three concessionaires were chosen: Keshet, Telad and Reshet. The concessionaires received a broadcasting contract for one decade and worked out a rotation agreement amongst themselves.
In 2005, the Ministry of Communications announced that two concessionaires would receive broadcasting contracts for the following decade. Of the four competitors (the fourth being Kan), Keshet and Reshet were chosen. Telad, which lost the bid, stopped broadcasting on Channel 2 in October 2005. Keshet and Reshet broadcast 4 days a week, rotating every two years. In 2011, Channel 2 installed a new digital system to preserve news content that was stored on aging videotapes and manage its archive library.
The broadcasts of Channel 2 were controlled by the Second Authority for Television and Radio. The channel currently has two concessionaires: Keshet and Reshet. Other content providers for Channel 2 include the Israeli News Company and Israeli Educational Television. The latter has been broadcasting its programs on the channel in the afternoon since 1995.
On 1 November 2017, both Keshet and Reshet became two separate channels. Channel 2, also identified under "22" in both cable and satellite ("Yes - DBS Israel") receivers disappeared and all three commercial channels (including Channel 10, which was also controlled by the Second Authority) moved to new positions on the STBs' : Keshet operates on channel 12, Reshet on channel 13 and Channel 10, now with a new logo showing the Hebrew word "Eser" ( ten in Hebrew), moved to channel 14.
- "Channel 2 Israel deploys Masstech's TOPAZ+XT MAM system to support digital workflow" (Press release). Masstech. 3 August 2011. Archived from the original on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
- Israeli Television and the National Agenda
- Kamin, Debra (2 October 2013). "Keshet: Two Decades of Evolution". Variety. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- "The Establishment of Channel 2". The Second Authority for Television and Radio. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
- "Channel 2". Ynetnews. 26 January 2005. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
- Kamin, Debra (22 January 2015). "Keshet's Cachet Draws Top TV Execs to Innovation Confab in Jerusalem". Variety. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- "Israel's Channel 2 set for historic split Tue midnight - Globes English". Globes (in Hebrew). Retrieved 5 November 2017.
- Kamin, Debra (1 November 2017). "Keshet, Reshet Begin Operating Own Channels in Israeli TV Shakeup". Variety. Retrieved 5 November 2017.