The National Census of Nepal is conducted every ten years to collect information about the demographic, social, economic and other parameters. The first census in Nepal was done in 1911 using a traditional approach. Since 1952/54 the census was done by adopting modern scientific methods. At present, the census is carried out by the Central Bureau of Statistics under the National Planning Commission. The census is a mandatory process to be carried out at every 10 years as per the Article 281 of Constitution of Nepal. 
|National Census of Nepal|
|Frequency||Once in ten years|
This was the ninth census conducted in Nepal.
This was the tenth census conducted in Nepal.
This was the eleventh census conducted in Nepal.
This is the twelveth census being conducted in Nepal.
The population of Nepal as per the census is given in the table below.
|Year||Population||Gender Ratio||Growth Rate|
Experts from various sectors have critiqued the census for producing wrong data.
The census has been critiqued for showing too many language speakers. They've laid issues with pointing foreign languages as mother tongue in Nepal. There are controversies around what consists of a language and what consists of a dialect.
- Sharma, Bharat Raj. "National Population Census of Nepal" (PDF). UN Stats. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
- "Census Nepal 2021". Retrieved 2021-11-14.
- "Nepal Census 2001". Nepal's Village Development Committees. Digital Himalaya. Archived from the original on 2008-10-12. Retrieved 2008-08-22.
- National Report 2001 -> Introduction Archived 2015-05-18 at the Wayback Machine Nepal Central Bureau of Statistics
- "Decadal Growth :www.cbs.gov.np" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-07-31.
- Regmi, Prof. Dr. Danraj. "भाषिक गणना : तथ्यांक कि मिथ्यांक ?". Naya Patrika. Retrieved 13 November 2021.