Carlist Wars

The Carlist Wars were a series of civil wars that took place in Spain during the 19th century. The contenders fought to establish their claim to the throne, although some political differences also existed. Indeed, several times during the period from 1833 to 1876 the Carlists — followers of Infante Carlos and his descendants — rallied to the cry of "God, Country, and King" and fought for the cause of Spanish tradition (Legitimism and Catholicism) against liberalism, and later the republicanism, of the Spanish governments of the day. The Carlist Wars had a strong regional component (Basque region, Catalonia, etc.), given that the new order called into question region–specific law arrangements and customs kept for centuries.

When King Ferdinand VII of Spain died in 1833, his widow, Queen Maria Cristina, became regent on behalf of their infant daughter Queen Isabella II. This splintered the country into two factions known as the Cristinos (or Isabelinos) and the Carlists. The Cristinos were the supporters of Queen Maria Cristina and her government, and were the party of the Liberals. The Carlists were the supporters of Infante Carlos of Spain, Count of Molina, a pretender to the throne and brother of the deceased Ferdinand VII. Carlos denied the validity of the Pragmatic Sanction of 1830 that abolished the semi Salic Law (he was born before 1830). They wanted a return to autocratic monarchy.[1]

While some historians count three wars, other authors and popular usage refer to the existence of two big engagements, the First and the Second, with the 1846–1849 events being taken as a minor episode.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ John Van der Kiste (2011). Divided Kingdom: The Spanish Monarchy from Isabel to Juan Carlos. History Press Limited. pp. 6–9.
  2. ^ Website of Municipality of Chantada, Galicia, in Galician

Further readingEdit

  • Carr, Raymond. Spain, 1808-1975 (1982), pp 184–95
  • Clarke, Henry Butler. Modern Spain, 1815-98 (1906) old but full of factual detail online
  • Holt, Edgar. The Carlist Wars in Spain (1967).
  • Payne, Stanley G. History of Spain and Portugal: v. 2 (1973) ch 19-21