Campos dos Goytacazes

Coordinates: 21°45′14″S 41°19′26″W / 21.75389°S 41.32389°W / -21.75389; -41.32389

Campos dos Goytacazes ([ˈkɐ̃puʒ duʒ ɡojtaˈkaziʃ, ˈkɐ̃pus dus ɡojtaˈkazis]) is a municipality located in the northern region of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, with a population of 471,737 inhabitants.

Campos dos Goytacazes
Municipality of Campos dos Goytacazes
Flag of Campos dos Goytacazes
Coat of arms of Campos dos Goytacazes
Nickname(s): 
"The Capital of Oil and Sugar"
Motto(s): 
Ipsae matronae hic pro jure pugnant (Latin for: "Even women here fight for the right")
Location in the state of Rio de Janeiro
Location in the state of Rio de Janeiro
Campos dos Goytacazes is located in Brazil
Campos dos Goytacazes
Campos dos Goytacazes
Coordinates: 21°45′14″S 41°19′26″W / 21.75389°S 41.32389°W / -21.75389; -41.32389
Country Brazil
RegionSoutheast
State Rio de Janeiro
City statusMarch 28, 1835
Government
 • MayorRafael Diniz (PPS)
Area
 • Total4,032 km2 (1,557 sq mi)
Elevation
14 m (46 ft)
Population
 (2020 [1])
 • Total511,168
 • Density130/km2 (330/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC−3 (BRT)
Postal Code
28000-000
Area code(s)+55 22
HDI (2010)0.716 – high[2]
Websitewww.campos.rj.gov.br

LocationEdit

Campos dos Goytacazes has an area of 4,032 km2 (1,557 sq mi), which makes it the largest municipality in the state by area, and its elevation is 14 m. Its name comes from the geographical characteristic of the region, very flat with fields (campos in Portuguese) and from the Goytacazes Indians, which inhabited the region. Campos, as the city is usually known, is a macro region of the Northern Fluminense, and is a micro region of Campos dos Goytacazes. The city has a tropical climate.

The municipality contains part of the 21,444 hectares (52,990 acres) Desengano State Park, created in 1970.[3]

The city's distance to Rio de Janeiro city, which is the capital of the state, is 286 kilometres (178 mi). BR-101 is the access highway of the city of Campos. Regular air services are operated from its airport Bartolomeu Lysandro. It is the easternmost municipality in Rio de Janeiro.

HistoryEdit

Colonization of the area started in the 16th century, and the village of São Salvador de Campos de Goytacazes was founded on May 29, 1677. On March 28, 1835 the village was promoted to city status.

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Campos was the see of Bishop Antônio de Castro Mayer, nicknamed "The Lion of Campos", who was one of the bishops who opposed the Vatican II reforms and who teamed with Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre of Dakar to consecrate four independent bishops in Écône, Switzerland, in 1988. Nowadays there are in Campos two Roman Catholic jurisdictions: a Diocese, whose Bishop is Monsignor Roberto Gomes Guimarães and the Personal Apostolic Administration of Saint John Mary Vianney, whose Apostolic Administrator is Monsignor Fernando Areas Rifan.

ClimateEdit

According to data provided by the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET), the lowest recorded temperature in Campos dos Goytacazes was 9.5 °C (49.1 °F) on 6 July 1942 and the highest was 41.6 °C (106.9 °F) on 31 October 2012. The most accumulated precipitation in the same period was 159.3 millimetres (6.27 in) on 23 December 1955. Records equal or superior to 100 mm (3.9 in) include:

  • 149.7 mm (5.89 in) on 2 November 1977,
  • 146.6 mm (5.77 in) on 18 November 2008,
  • 133.8 mm (5.27 in) on 14 November 2016,
  • 117.8 mm (4.64 in) on 20 November 1972,
  • 111.4 mm (4.39 in) on 24 November de 1966,
  • 108.6 mm (4.28 in) on 6 March 1960,
  • 107.8 mm (4.24 in) on 27 November 1992,
  • 107.3 mm (4.22 in) on 11 November 1970,
  • 105.4 mm (4.15 in) on 12 December 2005,
  • 103.3 mm (4.07 in) on 23 February 1933,
  • 102.8 mm (4.05 in) on 28 November 2008 and
  • 102 mm (4.0 in) on 28 March 1966.[4][5]
Climate data for Campos dos Goytacazes
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 40.2
(104.4)
40.8
(105.4)
39.4
(102.9)
39.2
(102.6)
36.4
(97.5)
35.2
(95.4)
36.6
(97.9)
38
(100)
39
(102)
41.6
(106.9)
40.3
(104.5)
40.8
(105.4)
41.6
(106.9)
Average high °C (°F) 32.1
(89.8)
33.2
(91.8)
32.6
(90.7)
30.8
(87.4)
28.9
(84.0)
28
(82)
27.3
(81.1)
27.8
(82.0)
27.7
(81.9)
28.8
(83.8)
30
(86)
31.2
(88.2)
29.9
(85.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.7
(80.1)
27.4
(81.3)
26.9
(80.4)
25.3
(77.5)
23.3
(73.9)
22
(72)
21.6
(70.9)
22.1
(71.8)
22.7
(72.9)
24
(75)
25
(77)
26.1
(79.0)
24.4
(76.0)
Average low °C (°F) 23.3
(73.9)
23.4
(74.1)
23.3
(73.9)
21.7
(71.1)
19.7
(67.5)
18.1
(64.6)
17.6
(63.7)
18.1
(64.6)
19.1
(66.4)
21.7
(71.1)
22.7
(72.9)
20.8
(69.4)
20.8
(69.4)
Record low °C (°F) 17
(63)
15.3
(59.5)
16.8
(62.2)
10.7
(51.3)
10.8
(51.4)
10.4
(50.7)
9.5
(49.1)
10.3
(50.5)
10.7
(51.3)
11.5
(52.7)
13.6
(56.5)
16
(61)
9.5
(49.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 133.7
(5.26)
61.2
(2.41)
102.8
(4.05)
84.7
(3.33)
43.9
(1.73)
27.9
(1.10)
29.5
(1.16)
23.4
(0.92)
70.6
(2.78)
98.1
(3.86)
162.9
(6.41)
168.8
(6.65)
1,007.5
(39.66)
Average precipitation days 9 7 9 7 6 4 5 3 7 8 11 12 88
Average relative humidity (%) 77.4 74.9 77.2 77.9 77.9 78.3 78 75.4 76.8 76.8 78.5 78.5 77.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 205.1 207.2 185.1 184.6 184.3 174.2 191.7 181.4 128.5 133.4 145.1 157.6 2,078.2
Source: Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INMET) (temperature means: 1981–2010;[6] temperature records: 1931–present)[4][5]

EconomyEdit

City's economy is based on oil extraction. The GDP for the city was R$17,283,381. (2016).

The per capita income for the city was R$35,475. (2016).[7]

CrimeEdit

Campos dos Goytacazes recorded 233 homicides in 2018 for a murder rate of 46 homicides per 100,000 people for the year. This makes Campos dos Goytacazes the most violent city in the southern half of Brazil.[8][9]

EducationEdit

Educational institutionsEdit

DemographicsEdit

Population Growth of Campos dos Goytacazes
YearPop.±%
1950 701,342—    
1960 630,054−10.2%
1970 609,248−3.3%
1980 564,329−7.4%
1990 517,300−8.3%
2000 436,008−15.7%
2010 471,737+8.2%

The population of Campos is 471,737, up from the 436,008 in 2000, but down from the 1990s, 1980s, 1970s, 1960s and 1950s. The city in the 1950s was the second largest of the state of Rio de Janeiro. The reasons behind these reductions are the "crash" that the economy of the town, based on oil, suffered in 1954, something similar that happened in Detroit with the auto industries. According to the 2010 census of IBGE (Brazilian institute of geography and statistics), whites represent 47.6% of population, brown or mulatos 36.8% and black of African 14.6%. Other races represent 1.0% of the population.[1]

SportsEdit

There are at least four football clubs in the city, namely Americano, Campos, Goytacaz and Rio Branco. The derby between Americano and Goytacaz is known as Goyta-cano.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ IBGE 2020
  2. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 8, 2014. Retrieved August 1, 2013.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ Upam Desengano flagra corte de madeira nativa em Santa Maria Madalena (in Portuguese), Inea: Instituto Estadual do Ambiente, 14 October 2015, archived from the original on 2017-01-13, retrieved 2017-01-12
  4. ^ a b Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INMET). "Banco de dados meteorológicos". Retrieved June 6, 2022.
  5. ^ a b INMET (1979). "Normais Climatológicas do Brasil (1931-1960)". Rio de Janeiro. Retrieved June 6, 2022.
  6. ^ INMET. "NORMAIS CLIMATOLÓGICAS DO BRASIL". Retrieved June 6, 2022.
  7. ^ per capita income (PDF) (in Portuguese). Campos, Brazil: IBGE. 2005. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-10-02. Retrieved 2007-07-18.
  8. ^ "List of cities by murder rate". seguridadjusticiaypaz.org.mx. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  9. ^ "50 of the most dangerous cities in the world". usatoday.com.

External linksEdit