Caddo is a Native American language, the traditional language of the Caddo Nation. It is critically endangered, with no exclusively Caddo-speaking community and only 25 speakers as of 2009 who acquired the language as children outside school instruction. Caddo has several mutually intelligible dialects. The most commonly used dialects are Hasinai and Hainai; others include Kadohadacho, Natchitoches and Yatasi.
|Native to||United States|
|Region||Caddo County in western Oklahoma|
|Ethnicity||5,290 Caddo people (2010 census)|
- 1 Linguistic connections
- 2 Use and language revitalization efforts
- 3 Phonology
- 4 References
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Caddo is linguistically related to the members of the Northern Caddoan language family; these include the Pawnee-Kitsai (Keechi) languages (Arikara, Kitsai, and Pawnee) and the Wichita language. Kitsai and Wichita are now extinct, and Pawnee and Arikara each have fewer surviving speakers than Caddo does.
Another language, Adai, is postulated to have been a Caddoan language while it was extant, but because of scarce resources and the language's extinct status, this connection is not conclusive, and Adai is generally considered a language isolate.
Use and language revitalization effortsEdit
The Caddo Nation is making a concentrated effort to save the Caddo language. The Kiwat Hasinay ('Caddo Home') foundation, located at the tribal home of Binger, Oklahoma, offers regular Caddo language classes, in addition to creating dictionaries, phrase books, and other Caddo language resources. They have also made a long-term project of trying to record and digitally archive Caddoan oral traditions, which are an important part of Caddo culture. As of 2012, the Caddo Nation teaches weekly language classes; language CDs, a coloring book, and an online learning website are also available. As of 2010, a Caddo app is available for Android phones.
Caddo has three contrastive vowel qualities, /i/, /ɑ/[clarification needed], and /u/, and two contrastive vowel lengths, long and short, for a total of 6 vowel phonemes.
|High||i iː||u uː|
However, there is a great deal of phonetic variation in the short vowels. The high front vowel /i/ is generally realized as its lower counterpart /ɪ/, and the high back vowel /u/ is similarly often realized as its lower counterpart /ʊ/. The low central vowel /a/ has a wider range of variation, pronounced (most commonly) as /ɐ/ when it is followed by any consonant except a semivowel or a laryngeal consonant, as a low central vowel (for which IPA lacks a symbol) at the end of an open syllable or when followed by a laryngeal consonant, and as /ə/ before a semivowel.
In general, the long vowels do not feature this kind of variation but are simply lengthened versions of the phonemes that are represented in the chart.
Caddo also has four diphthongs, which can be written a number of different ways; the transcription below shows the typical Caddo Nation orthography (a vowel paired with a glide) and the IPA version, represented with vowels and offglides.
- ay /aj/ – English eye
- aw /aw/ – English out
- iw /iw/ – English ew
- uy /uj/ – English boy
Caddo is a tone language. There are three tones in Caddo: low tone, which is unmarked (a); high tone, which is marked by an acute accent over the vowel (á); and falling tone, which is always long and marked by a grave accent over the vowel (àː).
Tone occurs both lexically (as a property of the word), non-lexically (as a result of tonological processes), and also as a marker of certain morphological features. For instance, the past tense marker is associated with high tone.
There are three processes that can create non-lexical high tone within a syllable nucleus. See the section below for an explanation of other phonological changes which may occur in the following examples.
- 1. H-deletion
- VhCC → VHighCC
- An /h/ before two consonants is deleted and the preceding vowel gains high tone:
- /kiʃwɑhn-t-ʔuh/ → [kiʃwɑ́nːt'uh] "parched corn"
- 2. Low tone-deletion
- VRVLowC → VHighRC
- A low tone vowel following a resonant (sonorant consonant) is deleted, and the preceding vowel gains a high tone.
- /sa-baka-nah-hah/ → [sawkɑ́nːhah] "does he mean it?"
- 3. Backwards assimilation
- VRVHigh → VHighRVHigh
- A vowel preceding a resonant and a high tone vowel gains high tone.
- /nanɑ́/ → [nɑ́nɑ́ː] "that, that one"'
There are two vowel syncope processes in Caddo, which both involve the loss of a low-tone vowel in certain environments. The first syncope process was described above as low tone-deletion. The second syncope process is described below:
- Interconsonantal syncope
- VCVLowCV → VCCV
- A low-tone vowel in between a vowel-consonant sequence and a consonant-vowel sequence is deleted.
- (Shown with intermediary form): /kak#(ʔi)t'us-jaʔah/ → kahʔit'uʃaʔah → [kahʔit'uʃʔah] "foam, suds"
Consonant cluster simplificationEdit
As a result of the syncope processes described above, several consonant clusters emerge that are then simplified by way of phonological process. At the present stage of research, the processes seem to be unrelated, but they represent a phonetic reduction in consonant clusters; therefore, they are listed below without much further explanation.
- 1. nw → mm
- 2. tw → pp
- 3. tk → kk
- 4. n → m / __ [+labial]
- 5. ʔʔ → ʔ
- 6. hh → h
- 7. ʔ+Resonant → Resonant+ʔ / syllable final
Syllable coda simplificationEdit
Similar to the consonant cluster simplification process, there are four processes by which a syllable-final consonant is altered:
- 1. b → w / syllable final
- 2. d → t / syllable final
- 3. k → h / syllable final (but not before k)
- 4. tʃ → ʃ / syllable final
Word boundary processesEdit
There are three word-boundary processes in Caddo, all of which occur word-initially:
- 1. n → t / # __
- 2. w → p / # __
- 3. y → d / # __
- ni-huhn-id-ah/ → [tihúndah] "she returned"
Such processes are generally not applicable in the case of proclitics (morphemes that behave like an affix and are phonologically dependent on the morpheme to which they are attached). An example is the English articles.
Caddo has a glottalization process by which any voiceless stop or affricate (except p) becomes an ejective when it is followed by a glottal stop.
- [-sonorant, -continuant, -voice, -labial, -spread glottis] → [+constricted glottis] / ___ [+constricted glottis, -spread glottis]
- A voiceless stop or affricate (except p) becomes an ejective when it is followed by a glottal stop.
- /sik-ʔuh/ → [sik'uh] "rock"
Caddo has a palatalization process that affects certain consonants when they are followed by /j/, with simultaneous loss of the /j/.
- a) /kj/ → [tʃ]
- b) /sj/ → [ʃ]
- /kak#ʔa-k'as-jaʔah/ → [kahʔak'a ʃʔah] " one's leg"
(Melnar includes a third palatization process, /tj/ → [ts]. However, /ts/ is not a palatal affricate so it has not been included here. Nevertheless, the third process probably occurs.)
Caddo has three processes by which a syllable nucleus (vowel) may be lengthened:
- Syllable Lengthening Process One
- VHigh(Resonant)CVC# → VHigh(Resonant)ːCVC#
- When the second-to-last syllable in a word has a nucleus consisting of a high tone vowel (and, optionally, a resonant), and the last syllable has the form CVC, the high tone nucleus is then lengthened.
- /bak-'ʔawɑ́waʔ/ → [bahʔwɑ́ːwaʔ] "they said"
- Syllable Lengthening Process Two
- V(Resonant)ʔ → V(Resonant) ː / in any prepenultimate syllable
- In any syllable before the penultimate, a glottal stop coda is deleted, and the remaining nucleus is lengthened.
- /hɑ́k#ci-(ʔi)bíhn-saʔ/ → [hɑ́hciːbíːsaʔ] " I have it on my back"
- Syllable Lengthening Process Three
- a) ij → iː
- b) uw →uː
- Any syllable nucleus with ij or uw must convert to a long vowel.
- "2010 Census CPH-T-6. American Indian and Alaska Native Tribes in the United States and Puerto Rico: 2010" (PDF). census.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-12-09.
- Caddo at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Caddo". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- The Linguist List
- SIL International, 2009
- Caddo Nation, 2007
- Native Languages of the Americas, 2011
- Kiwat Hasinay Foundation, 2005
- "Caddo Nation - Language". The Caddo nation. Archived from the original on 2012-11-14. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
- "The Caddo Language Learning Tool". Archived from the original on 2012-05-15. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
- "Caddo Language App Now Available on Android Market". alterNative Media. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
- "The Caddo Language: A Grammar, Texts, and Dictionary Based on Materials Collected by the Author in Oklahoma Between 1960 and 1970". Paperback (334 pages). Retrieved 2019-01-03.
- "Caddo Verb Morphology". Paperback (224 pages). Retrieved 2019-01-03.
- World Atlas of Language Structures Online
- Melnar, 2004
- Caddo Nation. 2007. Caddo Nation – Language. (October 20, 2011).
- Kiwat Hasinay Foundation. 2005. Kiwat Hasinay Foundation. (October 20, 2011).
- Melnar, Lynette R. 2004. Caddo Verb Morphology. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
- Native Languages of the Americas. 2011. Caddo Language and the Caddo Indian Tribe (Kadohidacho, Hasinai, Hasinay). (October 20, 2011).
- World Atlas of Language Structures Online. Caddo. (October 20, 2011).
- Caddo Language: A Grammar, Texts, and Dictionary Based on Materials Collected by the Author in Oklahoma Between 1960 and 1970, Dr. Wallace Chafe, Mundart Press (October 6, 2018).
- Kiwat Hasinay Foundation
- Caddo Alphabet (PDF)
- Kúhaʔahat Oklahoma! - How to say "hello" in Caddo
- Caddo Indian Language (Hatsinai)
- Search-able Caddo Language Dictionary on Socrata, created by Michael Sheyahshe (replaces Caddo WebLEX)
- OLAC resources in and about the Caddo language