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Caboloan (also spelled Kaboloan; Pangasinan: Luyag na Caboloan),[1] referred to Chinese records as Feng-chia-hsi-lan (Chinese: 馮嘉施蘭; pinyin: Féngjiāshīlán),[2] was a sovereign pre-colonial Philippine polity located in the fertile Agno River basin and delta, with Binalatongan as the capital.[3] It expanded its territory and influence from Pangasinan, to what are now the neighboring provinces of Tarlac, La Union, Benguet, Zambales, Nueva Ecija and Nueva Vizcaya, and had full independence until the Spanish conquest.[citation needed] It traded with the Kingdom of Ryukyu, Ashikaga shogunate and for trading with and sending gifts to Ming dynasty.[citation needed] The polity of Pangasinan sent emissaries to China in 1406–1411.[2]


Luyag na Caboloan
c. 1406–1576
StatusTributary state to Ming dynasty
Common languagesPangasinan, other Northern Luzon languages
Buddhism, Hinduism, Animism and Folk religion
• Established
c. 1406
• Spanish conquest of Pangasinan
CurrencySilver, Barter
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Prehistory of the Philippines
Barangay state
New Spain
Spanish East Indies
Today part of Philippines
Traditional Chinese馮嘉施蘭

The Chinese records of this kingdom began when King (Chinese: 王, pinyin: Wáng, Wade–Giles: Huang2), Kamayin, sent an envoy bringing gifts to the Chinese Emperor.[2]

Around the same period, the Srivijaya and Majapahit empires rose in Indonesia and Malaysia, and extended their influence over much of Southeast Asia. Urduja, a mythical warrior princess and Feng-chia-hsi-lan's first known founding figure (previous rulers had been unknown at that point), is believed to have ruled in Pangasinan around the 14th century.[4]

In the 16th century, the port settlement of Agoo[5] in Pangasinan was called the "Port of Japan" by the Spanish.[6] The locals wore apparel typical of other maritime Southeast Asian ethnic groups in addition to Japanese and Chinese silks. Even common people were clad in Chinese and Japanese cotton garments. They also blackened their teeth and were disgusted by the white teeth of foreigners, which were likened to that of animals. They used porcelain jars typical of Japanese and Chinese households. Japanese-style gunpowder weapons were also encountered in naval battles in the area.[7] In exchange for these goods, traders from all over Asia would come to trade primarily for gold and slaves, but also for deerskins, civet and other local products. Other than a notably more extensive trade network with Japan and China, they were culturally similar to other Luzon groups to the south, especially the Kapampangans.

Limahong, a Chinese corsair and warlord, briefly invaded the polity after his failure in the Battle of Manila (1574). He then set up an enclave of wokou (Japanese and Chinese pirates) in Pangasinan. Nevertheless, the Mexico-born Juan de Salcedo and his force of Tagalog, Visayan and Latino soldiers then assaulted and destroyed the pirate-kingdom, liberated the Pangasinan people and then incorporated their polity into the Spanish East Indies of the Spanish Empire.

Notable monarchs of CaboloanEdit

Image Ruler Events/Notes From Until
Warrior-Princess Urduja A legendary warrior princess and pioneer foundress of the dynasty who is recognized as a heroine in Pangasinan. She has been depicted as the only daughter of an unknown Rajah whose sons lost their lives defending their agricultural settlements in the Agno River valley and sea trade routes to their Srivijaya and Champa allies. c. 1350 1400
Kamayin (細馬銀) Sends gifts to China 1406 1408
Taymey Embassy to China formally established 1408 1409
Liyu 1409 ?
  Yongle Emperor (Honorary) Chinese Emperor holds a banquet in honor of Pangasinan December 11, 1411
Chinese Warlord Limahong Pangasinan is sacked and a pirate-enclave is established 1575
Conquistador Juan de Salcedo The many pirates that outnumbered the combined Filipino-Spanish-Mexican forces were repulsed by the knights led by Don Juan de Salcedo of Mexico who fell in love with (Dayang Dayang) Princess Kandarapa of Tondo who was so loyal and true to her love for Juan de Salcedo, she died of a broken heart when she heard false news that Juan de Salcedo married another woman. As a token of her fidelity that inspired him to fight against impossible odds, Juan de Salcedo kept the White Lotus Flowers Kandarapa gave her even until death, and the White Lotus holds profound meaning since in Eastern mysticism it symbolized purity and beauty blooming against all odds since it grew out of its muddy and dirty surroundings but it's immaculate itself. Pangasinan was incorporated into the Spanish Empire through encomiendas Salcedo gave to his men all across Pangasinan. 1575 1576

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Flores, Marot Nelmida-. The cattle caravans of ancient Caboloan : interior plains of Pangasinan : connecting history, culture, and commerce by cartwheel. National Historical Institute. Ermita: c2007.
  2. ^ a b c Scott, William Henry (1989). "Filipinos in China in 1500" (PDF). China Studies Program. De la Salle University. p. 8.
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^ de Loarca, Miguel (1582). Relacion de Las Yslas Filipinas.
  6. ^ Sals, Florent Joseph (2005). The history of Agoo : 1578-2005. La Union: Limbagan Printhouse. p. 80.
  7. ^ Scott, William Henry (1994). Barangay. Manila Philippines: Ateneo de Manila University Press. p. 187.