Caboloan (also spelled Kaboloan; Pangasinan: Luyag na Caboloan), referred to Chinese records as Feng-chia-hsi-lan (Chinese: 馮嘉施蘭; pinyin: Féngjiāshīlán), was a sovereign pre-colonial Philippine polity located in the fertile Agno River basin and delta, with Binalatongan as the capital. It expanded its territory and influence from Pangasinan, to what are now the neighboring provinces of Tarlac, La Union, Benguet, Zambales, Nueva Ecija and Nueva Vizcaya, and had full independence until the Spanish conquest. It traded with the Kingdom of Ryukyu, Ashikaga shogunate and for trading with and sending gifts to Ming dynasty. The polity of Pangasinan sent emissaries to China in 1406–1411.
The Chinese records of this kingdom began when King (Chinese: 王, pinyin: Wáng, Wade–Giles: Huang2), Kamayin, sent an envoy bringing gifts to the Chinese Emperor.
Around the same period, the Srivijaya and Majapahit empires rose in Indonesia and Malaysia, and extended their influence over much of Southeast Asia. Urduja, a mythical warrior princess, is believed to have ruled in Pangasinan around the 14th century.
In the 16th century, the port settlement of Agoo in Pangasinan was called the "Port of Japan" by the Spanish. The locals wore apparel typical of other maritime Southeast Asian ethnic groups in addition to Japanese and Chinese silks. Even common people were clad in Chinese and Japanese cotton garments. They also blackened their teeth and were disgusted by the white teeth of foreigners, which were likened to that of animals. They used porcelain jars typical of Japanese and Chinese households. Japanese-style gunpowder weapons were also encountered in naval battles in the area. In exchange for these goods, traders from all over Asia would come to trade primarily for gold and slaves, but also for deerskins, civet and other local products. Other than a notably more extensive trade network with Japan and China, they were culturally similar to other Luzon groups to the south, especially the Kapampangans.
Limahong, a Chinese corsair and warlord, briefly invaded the polity after his failure in the Battle of Manila (1574). He then set up an enclave of wokou (Japanese and Chinese pirates) in Pangasinan. Nevertheless, the Mexico-born Juan de Salcedo and his force of Tagalog, Visayan and Latino soldiers then assaulted and destroyed the pirate-kingdom, liberated the Pangasinan people and then incorporated their polity into the Spanish East Indies of the Spanish Empire.