McDonnell Douglas CF-18 Hornet
The McDonnell Douglas CF-18 Hornet (official military designation CF-188) is a Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) fighter aircraft, based on the American McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet fighter. In 1980, the F/A-18 was selected as the winner of the New Fighter Aircraft Project competition, and a production order was awarded. The Canadian Forces began receiving the CF-18 in 1982. CF-18s have supported North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) air sovereignty patrols and participated in combat during the Gulf War in 1991, the Kosovo War in the late 1990s, and as part of the Canadian contribution to the international Libyan no-fly zone in 2011. CF-18s were also part of the Canadian contribution to the military intervention against ISIL, Operation Impact.
|A Royal Canadian Air Force CF-18 flies on a mission over Iraq during Operation Impact in 2015|
|National origin||United States|
|Manufacturer||McDonnell Douglas / Boeing|
|First flight||18 November 1978|
|Introduction||7 January 1983|
|Primary user||Royal Canadian Air Force|
|Developed from||McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet|
New Fighter Aircraft programEdit
In 1977, the Canadian government identified the need to replace the NATO-assigned CF-104 Starfighter, the NORAD-assigned CF-101 Voodoo and the CF-116 Freedom Fighter (although the decision was later made to keep the CF-116). Subsequently, the government proceeded with the New Fighter Aircraft (NFA) competition, with a purchase budget of around C$2.4 billion to purchase 130–150 of the winner of the competition. Candidates included the Grumman F-14 Tomcat, McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle, Panavia Tornado, Dassault Mirage F1 (later replaced by the Mirage 2000), plus the products of the American Lightweight Fighter (LWF) competition, the General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon, the F/A-18 Hornet, and a de-navalized version of the Hornet, the F-18L.[N 1] The government stressed that the winner of the competition be a proven off-the-shelf design and provide substantial industrial benefits as part of the order.
By 1978, the New Fighter Aircraft competitors were short-listed to just three aircraft types: the F-16 and the two F-18 offerings. The F-14, F-15, and the Tornado were rejected due to their high purchase price, while Dassault dropped out of the competition. The F-18L combined the systems and twin-engine layout of the F-18 that Air Command favored with a lighter land-based equipment setup that significantly improved performance. Northrop, the primary contractor for the F-18L version, had not built the aircraft by the time of the NFA program, waiting on successful contracts before doing so. While Northrop offered the best industrial offset package, it would only "pay off" if other F-18L orders were forthcoming, something the Department of National Defence (DND) was not willing to bet on.
The F-14 almost entered Canadian service through the backdoor due to the Iranian Revolution. In the aftermath of the revolution, the United States cut off all military supplies to Iran, which meant that the Iranians' new fleet of F-14s would potentially be rendered unflyable due to a lack of spares. The Canadians offered to purchase them at a steeply discounted price. Negotiations ended before a deal was reached as it was revealed that Canadian involvement was crucial in the smuggling of American embassy personnel out of the new Islamic Republic.
In 1980, the McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet was declared the winner of the New Fighter Aircraft competition. The order included 98 single-seat variants and 40 dual-seat variants, for a total of 138 purchased, plus 20 options (which were not exercised). The F/A-18 Hornet was then dubbed the CF-188.[N 2] Outside official military documents, the aircraft are referred to as CF-18 Hornets. Reasons for the selection listed by the Canadian Forces were many of its requested features were included for the U.S. Navy; two engines for reliability (considered essential for conducting Arctic sovereignty and over-the-water patrols), an excellent radar set, while being considerably more affordable than the F-14 and the F-15. The CF-18 was procured from 1982 to 1988, at a total capital cost of $4 billion in 1982 dollars.
CF-18 design changesEdit
The original CF-18 as delivered is largely identical to the F/A-18A and B models. A total of 80 CF-18s, consisting of 62 single-seat and 18 dual-seat models, were delivered. Many features that made the F/A-18 suitable for naval carrier operations were retained by the Canadian Forces, such as the robust landing gear, the arrestor hook, and wing folding mechanisms.
The most visible difference between a CF-18 and a U.S. F-18 is the 0.6 Mcd night identification light. This spotlight is mounted in the gun loading door on the port side of the aircraft. Some CF-18s have the light temporarily removed, but the window is always in place. Also, the underside of the CF-18 features a painted "false canopy". This is intended to momentarily disorient and confuse an enemy in air-to-air combat. Subsequently, the U.S. Marine Corps Aviation and the Spanish Air Force F/A-18s also adopted this false canopy.[verification needed]
The need to upgrade the CF-18 was demonstrated during the Gulf War I deployment and during the 1998 Kosovo conflict as advances in technology had rendered some of the avionics on board the CF-18 obsolete and incompatible with NATO allies. In 2000, CF-18 upgrades became possible when the government increased the defence budget.
In 2001, the Incremental Modernization Project was initiated. The project was broken into two phases over a period of eight years and was designed to improve air-to-air and air-to-ground combat capabilities, upgrade sensors and the defensive suite, and replace the datalinks and communications systems on board the CF-18 from the old F/A-18A and F/A-18B standard to the current F/A-18C and D standard. Boeing (merged with McDonnell Douglas) the primary contractor and L-3 Communications the primary subcontractor, was issued a contract for the modernization project starting in 2002. A total of 80 CF-18s, consisting of 62 single-seat and 18 dual-seat models were selected from the fleet for the upgrade program. The project is supposed to extend the life of the CF-18 until around 2017 to 2020.
- Incremental Modernization Project Phase I
- Replacement of the AN/APG-65 radar with the new AN/APG-73 radar, which has triple the processing speed and memory capacity, while also incorporating Terrain Following and Terrain Avoidance modes for low level ground attack missions. Furthermore, the new AN/APG-73 radar is also capable of guiding the modern AIM-120 AMRAAM medium range missile.
- Addition of the AN/APX-111 Combined Interrogator and Transponder, otherwise known as an IFF (Identification Friend or Foe). The new IFF brings the CF-18 up to current NATO standards for combat identification.
- Replacement of the radios with the new AN/ARC-210, RT-1556/ARC VHF/UHF Radio. This radio, capable of line-of-sight communications on VHF/UHF frequencies as well as HAVE QUICK, HAVE QUICK II, and SINCGARS waveforms resolved the issues of compatibility with allied forces, and are more resistant to jamming.
- Replacement of the mission computers with the General Dynamics Advanced Information Systems AN/AYK-14 XN-8 mission computer with increased memory and processing capabilities.
- Replacement of the Stores Management System with the Smiths Aerospace AN/AYQ-9 Stores Management System. This makes the CF-18 more compatible with the latest of precision guided munitions (PGMs) and furthermore adds the MIL-STD-1760 interface for use of the AIM-120 AMRAAM missile and the JDAM family of GPS-guided bombs.
- Installation of a Global Positioning System/Inertial Navigation System (GPS/INS) capability, enhancing the CF-18's navigational capabilities.
Within the same time frame, other non-IMP upgrades include:
- Installation of a new infrared sensor pod.
- Replacement of the old cathode ray tube cockpit instrument panels with new flat paneled, full colour LCD displays from Litton Systems Canada (now L-3 Es Canada).
- Addition of a new night vision imaging system.
- Purchase of the AIM-120 AMRAAM medium-range missiles and other advanced air-to-air and air-to-ground munitions.
- Application of a landing gear "get well" program to reduce corrosion and improve gear retraction.
- Replacement of the existing CF-18 flight simulators with the Advanced Distributed Combat Training System.
The first completed "Phase I" CF-18 was delivered to the Canadian Forces on time in May 2003. Final delivery of all "Phase I" CF-18s was done at a ceremony on 31 August 2006 at L-3 Communications in Mirabel, Quebec.
- Incremental Modernization Project Phase II
Phase II of the CF-18 Incremental Modernization Project was awarded to Boeing on 22 February 2005. It consists of the following upgrades:
- Addition of a Link 16 data net system to the aircraft, enhancing interoperability with major NATO allies.
- Integration of the Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System from Boeing, BAE Systems, DRDC and L-3 Communications MAS.
- Addition of a crash survivable flight data recorder.
- Upgrade of the electronic warfare suite.
Within the same time frame, other upgrades unrelated to the IMP phases include:
- A fuselage Centre Barrel Replacement Project (for 40 of the upgraded aircraft).
- An Air Combat Manoeuvring Instrumentation System.
- An Integrated Electronic Warfare Support Station.
- An Electronic Warfare Test Equipment Project.
The first completed "Phase II" CF-18 was delivered to the Canadian Forces on 20 August 2007, at a ceremony in Montreal. The total cost of the entire CF-18 Incremental Modernization Project and concurrent Hornet upgrades was expected to be around C$2.6 billion. The final upgraded aircraft was delivered in March 2010.
The total program cost for the CF-18 purchase and upgrade programs is approximately $11.5 billion including upgrades, in 2011 dollars. Additionally, the cost of maintenance for any 20-year period has been approximately $5 billion, or $250 million per year.
The first two CF-18s were formally handed over to 410 (Operational Training Unit) Squadron at CFB Cold Lake, Alberta on 25 October 1982. Further deliveries equipped 409, 439, and 421 Squadrons at Baden-Soellingen in then West Germany, the 410 Operation Training Unit, No. 416, and No. 441 Squadrons at Cold Lake, and 425 and 433 Escadrilles (Squadrons) at CFB Bagotville, Quebec. Introduction into Canadian service was initially problematic due to early issues with structural fatigue which delayed initial deployment. As the initial bugs were worked out, the CF-18 started filling the NORAD interception and NATO roles as intended.
In 1991, Canada committed 26 CF-18s to the Gulf War on Operation Friction. [N 3] The CF-18s were based in Doha, Qatar. During the Gulf War, Canadian pilots flew more than 5,700 hours, including 2,700 combat air patrol missions. These aircraft were taken from Canada's airbase in Germany, CFB Baden-Soellingen. In the beginning the CF-18s began sweep-and-escort combat missions to support ground-attack strikes by Allied air forces. During the 100-hour Allied ground invasion in late February, CF-18s also flew 56 bombing sorties, mainly dropping 500 lb (230 kg) non-guided ("dumb") bombs on Iraqi artillery positions, supply dumps, and marshaling areas behind the lines. At the time the Canadian Hornets were unable to deploy precision guided munitions. This was the first time since the Korean War that the Canadian military had participated in combat operations.
Continuing violence in the former Yugoslavia brought CF-18s into theatre twice: first for a deployment (Operation Mirador) during August–November 1997 for air patrols supporting NATO peacekeepers in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and again from late June 1998 until late December 2000 (Operation Echo).
From March to June 1999, with 18 CF-18s already deployed to Aviano, Italy, Canada participated in both the air-to-ground and air-to-air roles. Canadian aircraft conducted 10 percent of the NATO strike sorties despite deploying a much smaller percentage of the overall forces. Canadian pilots flew 678 combat sorties: 120 defensive counter-air escorts for Allied strike packages and 558 bombing strikes during 2,577 combat flying hours. CF-18s dropped a total of 397 PGMs and 171 non-guided bombs on a wide variety of targets including surface-to-air missile sites, airfields, bridges and fuel storage areas.
Since 2001, CF-18s have responded to nearly 3,000 possible threats to Canada and United States. A task group of CF-18s and CH-146 Griffons were deployed during "Operation Grizzly" to Kananaskis, Alberta in June 2002 where they were deployed to secure the airspace during the 28th G8 summit. In 2007, an unknown number of CF-18s were deployed to Alaska. They were deployed during two weeks to defend United States airspace as a result of the primary USAF F-15 fighter jet fleet being grounded due to structural defects. They were also deployed during "Operation Podium" to secure the 2010 Winter Olympics and 2010 Winter Paralympics games.
After a United Nations Security Council resolution was adopted to enforce a Libyan no-fly zone, the Government of Canada on 18 March 2011, authorized the deployment of six CF-18 Hornets with one Hornet in reserve as part of Operation Mobile. The Hornets were based at Trapani-Birgi Italian Air Force base in western Sicily. CF-18s were first put into combat on 23 March 2011 when four aircraft bombed Libyan government targets. The seven Hornets returned to CFB Bagotville, Canada, on 4 November 2011 after the end of the UN-approved NATO mission. In total, the Hornets conducted 946 sorties, making up 10% of NATO strike sorties. Over the course of their sorties, 696 bombs were dropped including Laser-guided bombs and Joint Direct Attack Munitions (JDAM). The RCAF has dropped 495 of the 227 kg versions (500 lbs) and 188 of the 910 kg versions (2,000 lbs) Paveway II bombs. The RCAF also dropped 11 Joint Direct Attack Munitions of the 227 kg versions and two 910 kg versions.
Canada sent six CF-18s to Iraq as part of Operation Impact on 21 October 2014. Air strikes on ISIS/ISIL positions began on 2 November 2014. The CF-18s flew air strike missions until 15 February 2016.
Various fighter aircraft have been considered by the Canadian Forces as replacements for the CF-18, with the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II, Eurofighter Typhoon, Saab JAS 39 Gripen, Dassault Rafale, and the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet all having been promoted as contenders by their manufacturers. According to Le Devoir, project costs without considering maintenance, training and spare parts, were estimated at $4 to $8 billion.
Boeing indicated that the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, a derivative of the F/A-18 Hornet, was a less expensive alternative at an estimated total cost of $4 billion. One of the manufacturers in contention, Boeing, BAE Systems or Saab Aerospace—the name was not disclosed—had promised to assemble the entire aircraft in Canada although. Boeing said that it was contemplating shutting down production of the F/A-18 fighter production line due to lack of orders.
In July 2010, the Canadian government announced that the F-35 Lightning II would replace the CF-18. Canada has been a partner in the Joint Strike Fighter program since 1997, and a Tier 3 partner for the F-35 Lightning II since 2002. The Canadian Forces planned to buy 65 F-35s with deliveries starting in 2016; the contract was estimated to be worth C$9 billion, including aircraft and associated weapons, infrastructure, initial spares, training simulators, contingency funds and project operating costs. Media reports indicated that the lifetime cost of the aircraft might be as high as C$40 billion. In December 2012 it was announced that the government had abandoned the F-35 deal due to escalating cost, and was beginning a new procurement process, with the F-35 still being considered.
On 20 September 2015, Canadian Liberal Party leader Justin Trudeau promised to cancel the country's F-35 procurement plan if he were elected, instead replacing Canada's ageing fleet of CF-18s with a less costly alternative, arguing that the F-35 was not needed to defend Canada. He was sworn in as Prime Minister on 4 November 2015. In 2017, the Liberal government announced the purchase of 25 used Australian F-18 fighter jets as a stop-gap measure until new jets could be properly sourced and purchased.
In May 2017, Defence Minister Harjit Sajjan announced that Canada would purchase significantly more than the 65 jets originally proposed by the previous government. He stated that if Canada is to meet its NATO and NORAD commitments while also maintaining its own national air defence, "then 65 jets would not be a full fleet. It would only be a fleet for risk managing our requirements, not meeting them."
On 2 June 2017, it was announced that Canada would be acquiring 88 advanced multi-role fighter jets.
As an interim measure pending replacement, Canada decided in December 2017 to purchase 18 F/A-18A/B Hornets (a mix of flyable airframes and spares) from the Royal Australian Air Force. It was later announced in an Australian Senate hearing that Canada planned to purchase another seven Hornets for spare parts.
- CF-18A: Single-seat fighter and ground attack aircraft. Canadian Forces designation is CF-188A, 98 built.
- CF-18B: Two-seat training version. Canadian Forces designation is CF-188B, 40 built.
- Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) had 72 CF-18As and 31 CF-18Bs in inventory as of November 2008. 79 in operational use.
- 3 Wing CFB Bagotville, Quebec
- 4 Wing CFB Cold Lake, Alberta
- No. 401 Tactical Fighter Squadron
- No. 409 Tactical Fighter Squadron
- No. 410 Tactical Fighter (Operational Training) Squadron
- AETE (Aerospace Engineering Test Establishment)
Rotations from Cold Lake occur from 4 Wing to CFB Comox, British Columbia, and from 3 Wing Bagotville to CFB Goose Bay and CFB Gander, Newfoundland and Labrador, CFB Greenwood, Nova Scotia, and various forward operating bases in the Canadian Arctic. There are normally a few aircraft at CFB Trenton, Ontario, as well, though not a permanent squadron.
Accidents and incidentsEdit
Aircraft on displayEdit
Data from CF-18 Technical Specifications
- Crew: 1 or 2
- Length: 56 ft 0 in (17.1 m)
- Wingspan: 40 ft 0 in with Sidewinders (12.31 m)
- Height: 15 ft 4 in (4.66 m)
- Wing area: 400 ft2 (37.16 m2)
- Airfoil: NACA 65A005 mod root, 65A003.5 mod tip
- Empty weight: 23,049 lb (10,455 kg)
- Loaded weight: 37,150 lb (16,850 kg)
- Max. takeoff weight: 51,550 lb (23,400 kg)
- Powerplant: 2 × General Electric F404-GE-400 turbofans, 16,000 lbf (71.2 kN) each
- Maximum speed: Mach 1.8 (1,127 mph, 1,814 km/h) at 36,100 ft (11,000 m)
- Combat radius: 330 mi (290 nmi, 537 km) on hi-lo-lo-hi mission
- Ferry range: 2,070 mi (1,800 nmi, 3,330 km) (range without ordnance)
- Service ceiling: 50,000 ft (15,000 m)
- Rate of climb: 50,000 ft/min (254 m/s)
- Thrust/weight: 0.89
- Nine weapon/store stations (5 pylons: 1 under fuselage and 4 wing stations) carrying up to 13,700 lb (6,215 kg) of missiles, rockets, bombs, fuel tanks, and pods
- 2 LAU 116 on sides of fuselage: deploy AIM-7 Sparrow and AIM-120 AMRAAM missiles; 2 LAU 7 on the wing tips: deploy AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles
- 1 × 20 mm M61A1 Vulcan internal Gatling gun with 578 rounds, with a firing rate of 4,000 or 6,000 rounds per minute
- Missiles and rockets:
- Bombs: Mk 82, Mk 83 and Mk 84 unguided bombs; Paveway GBU-10, -12, -16 and -24 laser guided bombs; JDAM GPS bomb guidance kits; AGM-154 JSOW glide bombs.
Notable appearances in mediaEdit
The documentary television show Jetstream, which aired on Discovery Channel Canada, followed eight pilots training with the Canadian air force to fly the CF-18 at CFB Cold Lake. They trained in 410 Tactical Fighter Training Squadron.
The CF-18 is used as a primary element of the new logo for the Winnipeg Jets NHL hockey team, as an homage to the city's connection to the RCAF/CF as well as an earlier Olympic gold medal winning team, the Ottawa RCAF Flyers. The official unveiling described the origin of the design involving the cooperation of the Department of National Defence and was inspired by the logo of the Royal Canadian Air Force. Team spokesman Dorian Morphy, Senior Director, Marketing & Brand Management of True North Sports & Entertainment indicated, "We are thrilled to be able to continue this relationship in a significant way. The design cues for the plane were inspired by the military jets flown by the Air Force over the years."
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- The F-18L, like the entire F-18 series, was derived from the Northrop YF-17 Cobra, the Hornet's predecessor.
- Initially, the name "Hornet" was not used because the translation in French is Frelon, already used by a French military helicopter. The official designation is now the CF-188 Hornet.
- The U.S. portion of the Gulf War was called Desert Shield/Desert Storm.
- Gunston 1985, p. 96.
- "F/A-18 Aircraft Sales to Canada, Australia, and Spain: A Case Study of Offsets." Archived 22 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine The Office of Management and Budget via disam.dsca.mil, 16 April 1990. Retrieved: 8 June 2010.
- Ng, Allan. "The CF18 Hornet fighter aircraft – In Detail (Part 3)." Archived 25 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine sfu.ca, November 2003. Retrieved: 14 March 2010.
- "CF-188 Hornet." Archived 5 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine Canada's Air Force, 26 March 2007. Retrieved: 19 March 2011.
- Baugher, Joe. "CF-18 For Canada." Archived 24 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine joebaugher.com, 21 June 2005. Retrieved: 8 June 2010.
- "Dogfight: Comparing the F-35 and CF-18 fighter jets." Archived 15 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine National Post, 16 July 2010.
- "Auditing the Upgrades to the CF-18 Fighter Aircraft (Part 1)." Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine casr.ca, December 2004. Retrieved: 8 June 2010.
- Ng, Allan. "The CF18 Incremental Modernization Program – In Detail 'Not Your Father’s Hornet — the CF18 Incremental Modernization Program'." Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine casr.ca, December 2003. Retrieved: 8 June 2010.
- Ng, Allan. " The CF18 Hornet fighter aircraft – In Detail (Part 4)." Archived 18 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine Canadian Defence Procurement, November 2003. Retrieved: 16 December 2012.
- Khurana 2009, p. 36.
- Ng, Allan. "The CF18 Incremental Modernization Program – In Detail (part 1)." Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine CASR, December 2003. Retrieved: 14 March 2010.
- "Canadian military to get more." Archived 31 July 2012 at Archive.today Flight International, 7 March 2000.
- Cook, Kathleen. "Boeing Awarded Contract with Canada to Update Displays on F/A-18s." Archived 1 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine boeing.com, 26 July 2002. Retrieved: 5 June 2010.
- Collier-Jennings, Faith, et al. "Boeing Delivers First CF-18 Aircraft from Modernization Project." Archived 30 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine boeing.com, 14 May 2003. Retrieved: 5 June 2010.
- Frost, Patricia and Dianna Ramirez. "Boeing Completes First Phase of CF-18 Aircraft Modernization Project." Archived 30 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine Boeing, 31 August 2006. Retrieved: 14 March 2010.
- "CF-18 Aircraft Crewstation Demonstrator System Upgrade." Archived 6 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine DRDC, 6 January 2003. Retrieved: 14 March 2010.
- "Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS)." Archived 11 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine Boeing. Retrieved: 14 March 2010.
- Deaton, Tim and Pat Frost. "Backgrounder: Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS)." Archived 24 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine Boeing, August 2008. Retrieved: 8 June 2010.
- "Air Force receives first Phase II modernized CF-18 fighter jet". Archived 21 November 2007 at the Canadian Government Web Archive Canada's Air Force, 11 September 2007. Retrieved: 14 March 2010.
- Little, Steve; and Mudd, Brad. "Boeing Delivers First Upgraded Phase II CF-18 Hornet to Canadian Defence Forces." Archived 10 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine Boeing, 22 August 2007. Retrieved: 14 March 2010.
- "Canada's Air Force, Aircraft: CF-18 Hornet: Future Plans."[dead link] airforce.forces.gc.ca. Retrieved: 14 March 2010.
- Ng, Allan. "CASR – The CF18 Incremental Modernization Program – In Detail." Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine CASR.ca. Retrieved: 14 March 2010.
- "Boeing Leads Phase 2 Upgrade of 79 CF-18 Fighters." Archived 1 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine Defense Industry Daily, 29 March 2010. Retrieved: 26 July 2010.
- $4 billion inflated by CPI growth + 2.6BN Upgrade Project
- Pugliese, David. "Cost of maintenance for Canada;s F-35 same as CF-18 says DND- But is that true?" Archived 1 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine David Pugliese’s Defence Watch, 5 October 2010. Retrieved: 6 January 2012.
- Spick, Mike. The Great Book of Modern Warplanes. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing Company, 2000. ISBN 0-7603-0893-4.
- Brown, Bob. "Coalition involvement, p. 6." Archived 6 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine vetshome.com, 15 February 2008. Retrieved: 5 June 2010.
- "The mission of 435 "Chinthe" Transport and Rescue Squadron." Archived 22 March 2009 at the Wayback Machineairforce.forces.ca, 4 December 2008. Retrieved: 5 June 2010.
- "CF-18 Hornet." Archived 7 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine airforce.forces.ca, 26 March 2007. Retrieved: 5 June 2010.
- Mitchell, Mike. "CF-18 Hornet To Patrol Skies Over Vancouver's Olympics Games." Archived 9 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine avstop.com. 6 February 2010. Retrieved: 8 June 2010.
- Barr, Colonel David. "The Kananaskis G8 Summit: A Case Study in Interagency Cooperation." Archived 11 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine journal.forces.gc.ca, 14 July 2008. Retrieved: 5 June 2010.
- "Canadian fighter jets temporarily fill in for U.S. air defences." Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine cbc.ca, 27 November 2007. Retrieved: 21 September 2015.
- "Final Phase II Modernized CF-18 Hornet Delivered." Archived 9 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine forces.gc.ca, 26 March 2010. Retrieved: 5 June 2010.
- "Operation MOBILE." Archived 9 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine forces.gc.ca, 18 March 2011. Retrieved: 20 March 2011.
- Chase, Stephen. "Canada commits six fighter jets to help enforce Libyan no-fly zone." Archived 3 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine Globe and Mail, 17 March 2011. Retrieved: 18 March 2011.
- Strelieff, Captain Jill. "CF-188 Hornets on Op MOBILE drop first JDAM bombs." Archived 8 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine forces.gc.ca, 27 October 2011. Retrieved: 8 November 2011.
- "Canada's CF-18s in Libya mission return home." Archived 8 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine CBC, 4 November 2011. Retrieved: 8 November 2011.
- "Canada spent $25 M bombing Gadhafi forces." Canada.com, 19 April 2012. Retrieved: 19 April 2012.
- "CANADA'S CF-18 HORNETS DEPART FOR OPERATION IMPACT". Government of Canada. 21 October 2014. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
- "ISIS mission: Canadian CF-18s drop laser-guided bombs over Iraq - Politics - CBC News". CBC. 2 November 2014. Archived from the original on 7 November 2014. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
- "Canadian Armed Forces cease airstrike operations in Iraq and Syria". Government of Canada. 17 February 2016. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
- "Canada's air mission against ISIS has ended, Sajjan tells Commons debate". CBC. 17 February 2016. Archived from the original on 26 May 2016. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
- Pugliese, David. "Canadian Air Force Needs Competition on Next Generation Fighter Next Year at the Latest." Archived 9 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine Ottawa Citizen, 4 November 2009. Retrieved: 4 November 2009.
- Castonguay, Alec. "Le Canada veut remplacer ses CF-18 : une facture de quatre milliards au bas mot. (Canada wants to replace its CF-18: A bill of four billion at least.)" (French) Archived 14 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine Le Devoir, 11 November 2009. Retrieved: 11 November 2009. (English translation Archived 22 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine).
- "Avions de chasse : l'armée a fait son choix (Fighter plans: The Forces have made their choice.) (French)." Archived 28 August 2018 at the Wayback Machine Le Devoir, 7 June 2010. Retrieved: 8 June 2010.
- Quest, Sam. "Boeing's F/A-18 Super Hornet faces an uncertain future as the company considers closing its Stealth Fighter program". Bidness Etc. Archived from the original on 1 October 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
- "Canada's Next Generation Fighter Capability: The Joint Strike Fighter F-35 Lightning II." Archived 11 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine "Government of Canada", 16 July 2010. Retrieved: 26 July 2010.
- "Report: Ottawa set to spend $9B on new U.S. fighter jets from single source." The Guardian, 8 June 2010. Retrieved: 3 July 2010.
- "Government Of Canada Strengthens Sovereignty While Generating Significant Economic Benefits." Archived 15 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine Canada Department of National Defence, 16 July 2010. Retrieved: 26 July 2010.
- Brewster, Murray. "Stealth fighter fever grips Ottawa as Tories see new F-35 figures." Archived 8 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine Canadian Press via Yahoo News, 6 December 2012. Retrieved: 7 December 2012.
- Campion-Smith, Bruce. "F-35 deal scrapped as Conservative government begins new search for fighter jet" Archived 14 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine Toronto Star, 12 December 2012. Retrieved: 12 December 2012.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 October 2015. Retrieved 23 October 2015.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Canada could be flying Australia's used F-18 fighters this summer from CBC.ca, 4 January 2019, retrieved 6 July 2019
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 June 2017. Retrieved 7 June 2017.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Page 39; http://dgpaapp.forces.gc.ca/en/canada-defence-policy/docs/canada-defence-policy-report.pdf Archived 8 June 2017 at the Wayback Machine
- "Minister Payne confirms RAAF classic Hornet sale to Canada". Australian Aviation. 13 December 2017. Archived from the original on 13 December 2017. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 September 2018. Retrieved 8 September 2018.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 September 2018. Retrieved 8 September 2018.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Directory: World Air Forces". Flight International, 11–17 November 2008.
- Mittelstaedt, Martin. "Jets guard Ontario's nuclear sites, minister says." Archived 26 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine Globe and Mail via energy.probeinternational.org, 16 October 2001. Retrieved: 8 June 2010.
- "Ejection history." Archived 28 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine ejection-history.org, 27 March 2010. Retrieved: 5 June 2010.
- "Pilot dies in CF-18 crash near Cold Lake, Alta. - Edmonton". CBC News (Canada). 28 November 2016. Archived from the original on 29 November 2016. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
-  Archived 24 April 2019 at the Wayback Machine. bagotvillemuseum.ca
- "CF-188A Hornet Display Dedication." Archived 8 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine Peterson Air and Space Museum. Retrieved: 7 March 2018.
-  Archived 30 January 2019 at the Wayback Machine. Airforcemuseum.ca
- CF-18 "Technical Specifications." Canada's Air Force. Retrieved: 6 February 2008.
- "Jetstream page."[dead link] Discovery Channel Canada. Retrieved: 2 September 2009.
- "Jetstream page." Archived 24 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine papernyfilms.com. Retrieved: 2 September 2009.
- "Reborn Winnipeg Jets Unveil New Logo: Logo Features CF-18 Hornet, Canadian Maple Leaf." Archived 26 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine Local10.com, 22 July 2011. Retrieved: 23 July 2011.
- "True North Unveils Jets Logos." Archived 18 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine Winnipeg Jets, 22 July 2011. Retrieved: 23 July 2011.
- Drendel, Lou. F/A-18 Hornet in action (Aircraft Number 136). Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1993. ISBN 0-89747-300-0.
- Elward, Brad. Boeing F/A-18 Hornet (WarbirdTech, Vol. 31). North Branch, Minnesota: Specialty Press, 2001. ISBN 1-58007-041-8.
- Gunston, Bill. F/A-18 Hornet (Modern Combat Aircraft 22). St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks International, 1985. ISBN 0-7110-1485-X.
- Jenkins, Dennis R. F/A-18 Hornet: A Navy Success Story. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000. ISBN 0-07-134696-1.
- Khurana, K. C. Aviation Management: Global Perspectives. Delhi: Global India Publications, 2009. ISBN 978-9380228396.
- Miller, Jay. McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet (Aerofax Minigraph 25). Arlington, Texas: Aerofax Inc., 1988. ISBN 0-942548-39-6.
- Peacock, Lindsay. F/A-18 Hornet (Osprey Combat Aircraft Series). London: Osprey Publishing, 1986. ISBN 0-85045-707-6.
- Senior, Tim. "F/A-18 Hornet". AirForces Monthly, 2003. ISBN 0-946219-69-9.
- Spick, Mike. McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet (Classic Warplanes). London: Salamander Books, 1991. ISBN 0-8317-1412-3.