Building management system
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A building management system (BMS), otherwise known as a building automation system (BAS), is a computer-based control system installed in buildings that controls and monitors the building's mechanical and electrical equipment such as ventilation, lighting, power systems, fire systems, and security systems. A BMS consists of software and hardware; the software program, usually configured in a hierarchical manner, can be proprietary, using such protocols as C-Bus, Profibus, and so on. Vendors are also producing a BMS that integrates the use of Internet protocols and open standards such as DeviceNet, SOAP, XML, BACnet, LonWorks and Modbus.
Building management systems are most commonly implemented in large projects with extensive mechanical, HVAC, and electrical systems. Systems linked to a BMS typically represent 40% of a building's energy usage; if lighting is included, this number approaches to 70%. BMS systems are a critical component to managing energy demand. Improperly configured BMS systems are believed to account for 20% of building energy usage, or approximately 8% of total energy usage in the United States.
In addition to controlling the building's internal environment, BMS systems are sometimes linked to access control (turnstiles and access doors controlling who is allowed access and egress to the building) or other security systems such as closed-circuit television (CCTV) and motion detectors. Fire alarm systems and elevators are also sometimes linked to a BMS for monitoring. In case a fire is detected then only the fire alarm panel could close dampers in the ventilation system to stop smoke spreading, shut down air handlers, start smoke evacuation fans, and send all the elevators to the ground floor and park them to prevent people from using them.
Building management systems have also included disaster-response mechanisms (such as base isolation) to save structures from earthquakes. In more recent times, companies and governments have been working to find similar solutions for flood zones and coastal areas at-risk to rising sea-levels. One such example is the SAFE Building System by Arx Pax Labs, Inc., which is designed to float buildings, roadways, and utilities in a few feet of water. The self-adjusting floating environment draws from existing technologies used to float concrete bridges and runways such as Washington's SR 520 and Japan's Mega-Float.
On November 11th 2019, a 132-page security research paper was released titled "I Own Your Building (Management System)" by Gjoko Krstic and Sipke Mellema that addressed more than 100 vulnerabilities affecting various BMS and access control solutions by various vendors.
A list of systems that can be monitored or controlled by a BMS are shown below:
- Illumination (lighting) control
- Electric power control
- Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning
- Security and observation
- Access control
- Fire alarm system
- Lifts, elevators etc.
- Closed-circuit television (CCTV)
- Other engineering systems
- Control Panel
- PA system
- Alarm Monitor
- Security Automation
Many benefits exist when a BMS is installed in a building, some of them are:
- Possibility of individual room control
- Increased staff productivity
- Effective monitoring and targeting of energy consumption
- Improved plant reliability and life
- Effective response to HVAC-related complaints
- Save time and money during the maintenance
- Occupancy sensors allow automatic setback override during unoccupied periods as well as adaptive occupancy scheduling.
- Lighting controls reduce unnecessary artificial lighting via motion sensors and schedules as well as by controlling daylight harvesting louvers
- Controllers save water and energy by controlling rainwater harvesting and landscape irrigation
- Higher rental value
- Flexibility on change of building use
- Individual tenant billing for services facilities time saving
- Remote monitoring of the plants (such as AHU's, fire pumps, plumbing pumps, electrical supply, STP, WTP, greywater treatment plant etc.)
- Ease of maintenance
- Ease of information availability
- Computerized maintenance scheduling
- Effective use of maintenance staff
- Early detection of problems or service work easy
- More satisfied occupants
- Data is consolidated onto a single system to improve reporting, information management and decision-making. Integrating and managing the HVAC, energy, security, digital video and life safety applications from a single workstation allows facility-wide insight and control for better performance.
- Increased operational savings – Efficient resource deployment can result in reduced operational costs, empowering operators, simplifying training and decreasing false alarms.
- Energy efficient – Real-time view into facility operations and deep trend analysis provide data-driven insight to optimize your energy management strategies and minimize operational costs.
- Flexibility to grow and expand – The powerful combination of open systems protocols and a scalable platform means the BMS can help support growth and expansion of the system in the future.
- Reduced risk – Strategic mobile or desktop control, exceptional alarm management and integrated security solutions helps to see the big picture, helping to speed up response time and mitigate risks for the property, people and business.
- Intelligent reporting – Comprehensive reporting with functionality for customizable reports delivers greater transparency into system history and promotes compliance.
BMS deals with energy demand management. EDM integrates energy policies and regulations in to overall company operations. It incorporates energy targets into overall business strategies. EDM conduct management reviews and establishes a system to collect, analyse and report data related energy consumption and ensure correctness and integrity of that data.
- Advanced Sensors and Controls for Building Applications: Market Assessment and Potential R&D Pathways (Brambley 2005)
- Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC SystemsVolume III: Energy Savings Potential (Roth 2002)
- Hawkins, Andrew. "This hoverboard startup wants to create floating cities to combat climate change". The Verge. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
- Wachs, Audrey. "This company is designing floating buildings to combat climate change disasters". The Architect's Newspaper. Retrieved 31 October 2016.
- Krstic, Gjoko. "I Own Your Building (Management System)" (PDF). Applied Risk. Retrieved 11 November 2019.
- "HVAC and Building Management Systems". Honeywell International Inc. Retrieved November 5, 2017.