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Khowa, or Bugun, is a small Sino-Tibetan language spoken in India. They numbered about 1,700 in 2011.

RegionArunachal Pradesh
EthnicityBugun (Khowa)
Native speakers
1,700 (2011)[1]
Possibly Sino-Tibetan
Language codes
ISO 639-3bgg



Bugun is classified as a Kho-Bwa language in Blench & Post (2013), although Blench (2015)[3] believes Bugun may be actually be unrelated to the rest of the Kho-Bwa languages.


Lieberherr & Bodt (2017)[4] list the following Bugun dialects along with their numbers of speakers.

  • Dikhyang (100 speakers)
  • Singchung (680 speakers)
  • Wangho (220 speakers)
  • Bichom (630 speakers)
  • Kaspi (80 speakers)
  • Namphri (180 speakers)


Bugun is spoken in the following villages in southern West Kameng District, Arunachal Pradesh (Dondrup 1990:iv).[5] The total population numbered 800 in 1981. Names in parentheses are spellings as given in Ethnologue.

  • Wanghoo (Wangho)
  • Singchung
  • Kaspi (New Kaspi)
  • Lichini
  • Ramo (Ramu)
  • Namphri
  • Chithu (Situ)
  • Sachida (Sachita)
  • Pani-Phu
  • Ditching (Diching)
  • Dikhiyang (Dikiang)
  • Bicham (Bichom) (a recently founded hamlet)

Ethnologue also lists Mangopom village. These villages are located on the mountains on both sides of Rupa River, and are interspersed among Aka villages.


  1. ^ Blench, Roger. 2011. (De)classifying Arunachal languages: Reconsidering the evidence Archived 2013-05-26 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Bugun". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Blench, Roger. 2015. The Mey languages and their classification. Presentation given at the University of Sydney.
  4. ^ Lieberherr, Ismael; Bodt, Timotheus Adrianus. 2017. Sub-grouping Kho-Bwa based on shared core vocabulary. In Himalayan Linguistics, 16(2).
  5. ^ Dondrup, Rinchin. 1990. Bugun language guide. Itanagar: Directorate of Research, Government of Arunachal Pradesh.