Boromir is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium. He appears in the first two volumes of The Lord of the Rings (The Fellowship of the Ring and The Two Towers), and is mentioned in the last volume, The Return of the King. He was the heir of Denethor II (the 26th Ruling Steward of Gondor) and the elder brother of Faramir. In the course of the story Boromir joined the Fellowship of the Ring.
Captain of the White Tower,|
High Warden of the White Tower
The Fellowship of the Ring (1954)|
The Two Towers (1954)
Boromir is portrayed as a noble character who believed passionately in the greatness of his kingdom and fought indomitably for it. His great stamina and physical strength, together with a forceful and commanding personality, made him a widely admired commander in Gondor's army and the favorite of his father Denethor. As a member of the Fellowship, his desperation to save his country ultimately drove him to betray his companions and attempt to seize the Ring, but he was redeemed by his repentance and brave last stand.
Boromir, was born in the year 2978 of the Third Age to Denethor II and Finduilas, daughter of Adrahil of Dol Amroth. His younger brother Faramir was born in T.A. 2983. The following year, Denethor became Steward of Gondor, succeeding his father, Ecthelion II, and Boromir simultaneously became heir apparent, inheriting the Horn of Gondor.
Boromir was named after the son of Denethor I, who was Steward around 500 years before the War of the Ring. The first Boromir was known as a great captain who cleared Ithilien of orcs of Mordor and was feared even by the Witch-king himself, setting high expectations for his namesake.
When Boromir's mother Finduilas died in T.A. 2988, he was aged only 10. Denethor became sombre, cold and detached from his family, which drove the brothers Faramir and Boromir to confide and depend on each other. Denethor always favoured Boromir over Faramir—Denethor loved Boromir "too much, perhaps; the more so because they were unlike"—but this caused no rivalry between the brothers. Boromir, more fearless and daring, always protected and helped Faramir.
Boromir was made Captain of the White Tower, and quickly became Captain-General, also bearing the title High Warden of the White Tower. He led many successful forays against Sauron's forces, bringing him great esteem in the eyes of his father.
In response to prophetic dreams that came to Faramir and later to himself, Boromir claimed the quest of riding to Rivendell from Minas Tirith in T.A. 3018. His journey lasted a hundred and eleven days, and he travelled through "roads forgotten" to reach Rivendell, though, as he said, "few knew where it lay". Boromir lost his horse halfway along, while crossing the Greyflood at the ruined city of Tharbad where the bridge was broken. He had to travel the remaining way on foot and barely arrived in time for the Council of Elrond. (Tolkien wrote of Boromir's journey that "the courage and hardihood required is not fully recognized in the narrative".)
The Fellowship of the RingEdit
Boromir first appears in The Lord of the Rings arriving at Rivendell just as the Council of Elrond was commencing. There he told of Gondor's attempts to keep the power of Mordor at bay. He attempted to persuade the Council to let him take the One Ring to defend Gondor, but he was told that it would corrupt and destroy its user, and alert Sauron to its presence. He accepted this for the moment, and pledged as part of the Fellowship of the Ring to protect the Ring-bearer, Frodo.
Boromir accompanied Frodo south from Rivendell with the Fellowship. Before departing, he sounded the Horn of Gondor, saying he "would not go forth like a thief into the night". On the journey south, Boromir frequently questioned the wisdom of their leader, the Wizard Gandalf. Boromir did, however, prove himself a valuable companion on the Fellowship's attempt to pass over the Misty Mountains: he advised that firewood be collected before the attempt to climb Caradhras, and this saved them from freezing in a blizzard. In the retreat from Caradhras, Boromir proved his strength and stamina as he burrowed through shoulder-high snowbanks alongside Aragorn to clear the path back down the mountain.
The Fellowship then passed under the mountains through the caverns of Moria, where Gandalf was lost, and Aragorn became their new guide. At the borders of the Elven realm of Lothlórien, Boromir was unnerved by the thought of entering—he pleaded with Aragorn to find another way "though it led through a hedge of swords", citing stories of elvish witchcraft, and the "strange paths" they had been taking which had already caused them to lose Gandalf. Once in Lórien, Boromir was greatly disturbed by the Elven Lady Galadriel's testing of his mind; he told Aragorn "not to be too sure of this lady and her purposes." On parting, Galadriel gave Boromir a golden belt and an Elven-cloak.
Boromir always favoured taking the Ring to Minas Tirith, despite the consensus reached at Rivendell that it must be destroyed in Mordor. As Frodo pondered his course from Parth Galen, Boromir privately urged Frodo to use the Ring in Gondor's defence rather than to "throw it away". Finally, he succumbed to the temptation to take the Ring for himself, justifying this by his duty to his people and his belief in his own integrity.
|“||True-hearted Men, they will not be corrupted. We of Minas Tirith have been staunch through long years of trial. We do not desire the power of wizard-lords, only strength to defend ourselves, strength in a just cause. And behold! In our need chance brings to light the Ring of Power. It is a gift, I say; a gift to the foes of Mordor. It is mad not to use it, to use the power of the Enemy against him. The fearless, the ruthless, these alone will achieve victory. What could not a warrior do in this hour, a great leader? What could not Aragorn do? Or if he refuses, why not Boromir? The Ring would give me power of Command. How I would drive the hosts of Mordor, and all men would flock to my banner!||”|
After seeing that Frodo was unconvinced, Boromir half begged, half commanded him to at least lend the Ring, and when Frodo still refused, Boromir leaped to seize it. Frodo vanished by putting on the Ring and fled, intending to continue the quest alone. Boromir, realizing his betrayal, immediately repented his actions and wept. Searching unsuccessfully for Frodo, he told the Fellowship of Frodo's disappearance, though not of his own misdeeds. The hobbits in a frenzy scattered to look for Frodo. Aragorn, who suspected Boromir's part in Frodo's flight, ordered him to follow and protect Merry and Pippin, which he did without question. The Fellowship was then attacked by a band of orcs.
The Two TowersEdit
During the scattered fighting against orcs near Parth Galen, Boromir was mortally wounded by arrows while defending Merry and Pippin, redeeming himself for trying to take the Ring. The fighting is described through Pippin's eyes:
|“||Then Boromir had come leaping through the trees. He had made them fight. He slew many of them and the rest fled. But they had not gone far on the way back when they were attacked again, by a hundred Orcs at least, some of them very large, and they shot a rain of arrows: always at Boromir. Boromir had blown his great horn till the woods rang, and at first the Orcs had been dismayed and had drawn back; but when no answer but the echoes came, they had attacked more fiercely than ever. Pippin did not remember much more. His last memory was of Boromir leaning against a tree, plucking out an arrow; then darkness fell suddenly.||”|
Blasts from Boromir's horn alerted Aragorn, but he came too late to prevent the hobbits' capture. As Boromir lay dying, he remorsefully confessed to attempting to take the Ring from Frodo, and accepted his own impending death as penance. He urged Aragorn to save Minas Tirith, as he himself had failed. Aragorn reassured him that he had not failed, that "few have gained such a victory". Aragorn, Gimli, and Legolas placed Boromir's body in one of their Elven boats, with his sword, belt, cloak, broken horn, and the weapons of his slain foes about him. They set the boat adrift in the river toward the Falls of Rauros, and sang a "Lament of the Winds" as his funeral song.
|“||But in Gondor in after-days it long was said that the elven-boat rode the falls and the foaming pool, and bore him down through Osgiliath, and past the many mouths of Anduin, out into the Great Sea at night under the stars.||”|
Faramir later observed to Frodo that Boromir "died well, achieving some good thing. His face was more beautiful even than in life."
Tolkien describes Boromir's appearance as reflecting his Númenórean descent: tall (Tolkien wrote he was 6'4" or 193 cm), fair, dark-haired, and grey-eyed. He was noted even beyond Gondor's borders for his bravery and skill in battle, and was accounted one of the greatest Captains of Gondor. He was noble and lordly, and at the same time deeply loyal, acting from strong love for his people and his family.
Boromir's character changes throughout Book II of The Fellowship Of The Ring, in line with the epic's progression towards the catastrophe that ends Book II. Boromir is shown as having the habit of command. According to his brother Faramir, even as a boy Boromir chafed under the notion that the Stewards were not kings, though they ruled in all but name. He insisted on taking for himself the quest to Imladris, though the dreams had come first to Faramir. At Rivendell he, using what critic Tom Shippey describes as "slightly wooden magniloquence", sets forth Gondor's claim to primacy in the War of the Ring.
As Book II continues, Boromir is shown as displaying increasing "bravado and recklessness." The Captain of the White Tower craved honours, was irked at having to flee from orcs, resisted Aragorn's claim to leadership, and played a key role in the catastrophe that sundered the Fellowship of the Ring. In an opening scene of Book III, Boromir redeems himself. Fatally injured by orc-arrows, Boromir admits his failure, advises Aragorn, and urges him to lead Gondor and save its people. Boromir's loyalty to his native City is shown as redressing the catastrophe he had brought upon the Fellowship by assaulting Frodo in his madness.
Names and titlesEdit
Boromir was the son and heir apparent of Denethor, the ruling Steward of Gondor. Appendix A calls him "Captain of the White Tower", while Faramir called him "High Warden of the White Tower" and "our Captain-General".
Boromir was described by Tolkien as a name "of mixed form", and possibly combines Sindarin bor(on)- 'steadfast' with either Sindarin mîr or Quenya míre 'jewel'. But the Stewards of Gondor also often bore names "remembered in the songs and histories of the First Age", regardless of meaning, and the name Boromir did appear during the First Age in The Silmarillion. The eleventh steward of Gondor, Denethor I, had as well a son called Boromir who was described as a great warrior. This might have been an inspiration for Denethor II to name his first son.
Interpretation of the characterEdit
Boromir's desire for the Ring has been described as well-intentioned but oblivious of the potential danger. His perception of Middle-earth is biased by a belief that divine powers have chosen Gondor to lead the fight against evil. He is always eager to praise the great deeds of Gondor, including his own. Boromir's hubris makes him prey to the malign power of the Ring, and he seals his own doom when he attacks Frodo to seize it. He makes way thereby for Aragorn to become the future king of Gondor, in a manner similar to Virgil's character Turnus.
The character of Boromir has also been compared to the medieval legendary hero Roland. Both blow a horn in the distress of battle and both are eventually killed in the wilderness while defending their companions, although Roland is portrayed as blameless and heroic throughout.
Portrayal in adaptationsEdit
In both Ralph Bakshi's 1978 animated film and in the subsequent BBC Radio serial, Boromir is played by Michael Graham Cox. In the former, he is dressed in barbarian garb, which is a total departure from Tolkien's text.
In Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings film trilogy, Boromir is played by Sean Bean. In a departure from the structure of Tolkien's book, Boromir's death is shown at the end of The Fellowship of the Ring (2001), instead of being related at the beginning of The Two Towers. In the film, Boromir is mortally wounded by three large arrows fired by the Uruk-hai leader Lurtz, a character created for the films, instead of by numerous arrows from orcs led by Uglúk. He is found by Aragorn, who slays Lurtz before the latter can deal a final blow to Boromir.
In The Two Towers (2002), Boromir appears in the theatrical version only briefly during the beginning flashback sequence of Gandalf's fight with the Balrog in Moria. The Extended Edition adds two additional flashbacks: first when Faramir remembers finding Boromir's body and his cloven horn in the elven boat washed up on shore; and in considerably longer flashback (the only scene of the film trilogy where Boromir and Faramir are seen speaking to each other), after Boromir's victory in Osgiliath and before his departure for Rivendell. The two brothers are seen celebrating and laughing before their father speaks, and the scene ends as Boromir leaves, saying to Faramir, "Remember today, little brother". Here Boromir apparently knows that "Isildur's Bane" is the One Ring, and he is chosen specifically by his father, despite his reluctance to go, in response to a summons from Elrond. He is thus aware of the true meaning of the phrase "Isildur's Bane" when he arrives at Rivendell on horseback.
In The Return of the King (2003), Boromir appears in the theatrical version during a brief flashback as Pippin remembers his heroic self-sacrifice. Due to that scene alone, Sean Bean's name and portrait appears in the closing credits of the film. In the Extended Edition of the film, Boromir appears briefly when Denethor looks at Faramir and imagines for a moment that he sees Boromir walking towards him, smiling.
- The Return of the King, "Minas Tirith"
- The Fellowship of the Ring, "The Council of Elrond"
- The Fellowship of the Ring, "Farewell to Lórien".
- Unfinished Tales, "The Port of Lond Daer", p. 264.
- The Road to Middle-Earth, rev. ed. (2003), p. 121
- The Fellowship of the Ring, "The Breaking of the Fellowship"
- The Two Towers, "The Uruk-hai".
- The Two Towers, "The Departure of Boromir".
- The Two Towers, "The Window on the West".
- The Road to Middle-Earth, rev. ed. (2003), p. 215.
- The Return of the King, Appendix A: I (iv).
- The Two Towers, "Of Herbs and Stewed Rabbit".
- Return of the King, Appendix F, Part I, p. 406, note 1.
- Lost Road, "Etymologies", entries BOR- and MIR-.
- The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion", Chapter 17, p. 148
- Pesch, Helmut W. (2003). Elbisch (in German). Bastei Lübbe. p. 25. ISBN 3-404-20476-X.
- Rutledge, Fleming (2004). The Battle for Middle-Earth: Tolkien's Divine Design in The Lord of the Rings. Roundhouse Publishing Group. pp. 140–142. ISBN 978-0802824974.
- Burkard, Thorsten; Schauer, Markus; Wiener, Claudia (2010). Vestigia Vergiliana: Vergil-Rezeption in Der Neuzeit [Vestigia Vergiliana: The Reception of Virgil in Modern Times] (in German). Walter de Gruyter. pp. 381, 383. ISBN 978-3-11-024720-6.
- Solopova, Elizabeth (2009), Languages, Myths and History: An Introduction to the Linguistic and Literary Background of J.R.R. Tolkien's Fiction, New York City: North Landing Books, p. 42, ISBN 0-9816607-1-1
- Drout, Michael D. C., ed. (2007). J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia: Scholarship and Critical Assessment. Taylor & Francis. pp. 468–9. ISBN 978-0-415-96942-0.