Bishr ibn Safwan al-Kalbi
|Governor of Egypt|
|Preceded by||Ayyub ibn Sharhabil|
|Succeeded by||Hanzalah ibn Safwan al-Kalbi|
|Governor of Ifriqiya|
|Monarch||Yazid II, Hisham|
|Preceded by||Muhammad ibn Yazid|
|Succeeded by||Ubaydah ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Qaysi|
|Relations||Hanzalah ibn Safwan al-Kalbi (brother)|
In 720 Bishr was appointed governor of Egypt by the caliph Yazid ibn Abd al-Malik as a replacement for Ayyub ibn Sharhabil. During his time in that province, he cancelled several measures that had been enacted by his predecessor, including a salary increase for the local Muslims and fiscal exemptions for Christian churches, and implemented a reform of the diwan registers by segregating members of the Quda'ah from those of other tribes. It was also during Bishr's governorship that the city of Tinnis came under attack by the Byzantines, resulting in the deaths of several Muslims there.
In 721 Bishr was ordered by Yazid to establish himself in Ifriqiyah (North Africa) following the murder of its governor Muhammad ibn Yazid, and he accordingly set out west, leaving his brother Hanzalah ibn Safwan to govern Egypt in his stead. Upon arriving in the province, he was informed that Abdallah ibn Musa ibn Nusayr had been behind Muhammad's death and wrote to Yazid of the matter. After receiving Yazid's reply that Abdallah should be put to death, Bishr executed him and sent his head on to the caliph. He also proceeded to confiscate Abdallah's property and implemented punitive measures against his former associates.
In 723 Bishr set out from Ifriqiyah to meet the caliph in person, but while en route he learned that Yazid had died and been succeeded by Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik. Bishr therefore presented the new caliph with the tribute that had been meant for Yazid; Hisham responded by re-confirming his governorship over Ifriqiyah, and afterwards sent him to return to the province.
While in Ifriqiyah Bishr dispatched his commanders on regular campaigns against Byzantine targets in the Mediterranean Sea. Sardinia came under attack in 721 and 727, while in 724 both Sardinia and Corsica were struck; raids against unknown objectives were also made in 722 and 726. Bishr himself led an expedition against Sicily which resulted in the acquisition of spoils, but this offensive ended badly when storms overtook his fleet and caused much of his army to perish.
- The exact rendering of Tuwayl's name is given variously in the sources. Ibn Hazm 1982, p. 457; Ibn 'Asakir 1995, p. 233; Al-Kindi 1912, p. 69; Ibn Taghribirdi 1929, p. 244.
- Kennedy 1998, p. 73; Kubiak 1987, pp. 70, 92; Al-Kindi 1912, pp. 70–71; Severus 1910, p. 72.
- Al-Kindi 1912, p. 70; Ibn Taghribirdi 1929, p. 244.
- Blankinship 1994, p. 138; Jones 1858, p. 31; Gordon et al. 2018, p. 1030; Khalifah ibn Khayyat 1985, p. 326; Al-Baladhuri 1916, p. 366; Ibn Khaldoun 1852, p. 357; Al-Kindi 1912, p. 71; Ibn Taghribirdi 1929, pp. 244–45.
- Blankinship 1994, p. 138; Jones 1858, pp. 31–32; Gordon et al. 2018, p. 1036; Khalifah ibn Khayyat 1985, pp. 334, 349; Al-Baladhuri 1916, pp. 366–67. Al-Kindi 1912, p. 72, reports that Bishr made it as far as Egypt before learning that Yazid had died, upon which he turned around and returned to Ifriqiyah.
- Blankinship 1994, p. 139; Khalifah ibn Khayyat 1985, pp. 328, 330, 336, 338, 339; Jones 1858, p. 32; Ibn Khaldoun 1852, pp. 357–58.
- Blankinship 1994, p. 138; Jones 1858, p. 32; Gordon et al. 2018, p. 1036; Khalifah ibn Khayyat 1985, p. 349; Al-Baladhuri 1916, p. 367; Ibn Khaldoun 1852, p. 358; Ibn Taghribirdi 1929, p. 245; Ibn 'Asakir 1995, pp. 236–37.
- Al-Baladhuri, Ahmad ibn Jabir (1916). The Origins of the Islamic State, Part I. Trans. Philip Khuri Hitti. New York: Columbia University.
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- Ibn Khaldoun (1852). Histoire des Berbères et des dynasties musulmanes de l'Afrique (in French). Vol. I. Translated by de Slane, M. le Baron. Imprimerie du gouvernement.
- Ibn Taghribirdi, Jamal al-Din Abu al-Mahasin Yusuf (1929). Nujum al-zahira fi muluk Misr wa'l-Qahira, Volume I (in Arabic). Cairo: Dar al-Kutub al-Misriyya.
- Jones, John Harris (1858). Ibn-El-Hakem's History of the Conquest of Spain. Goettingen and London: Dieterich / Williams & Norgate.
- Kennedy, Hugh (1998). "Egypt as a province in the Islamic caliphate, 641–868". In Petry, Carl F. (ed.). Cambridge History of Egypt, Volume One: Islamic Egypt, 640–1517. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 62–85. ISBN 0-521-47137-0.
- Khalifah ibn Khayyat (1985). al-Umari, Akram Diya' (ed.). Tarikh Khalifah ibn Khayyat, 3rd ed (in Arabic). Al-Riyadh: Dar Taybah.
- Al-Kindi, Muhammad ibn Yusuf (1912). Guest, Rhuvon (ed.). The Governors and Judges of Egypt (in Arabic). Leyden and London: E. J. Brill.
- Kubiak, Wladyslaw B. (1987). Al-Fustat: Its Foundation and Early Urban Development. Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press. ISBN 978-1-61797-741-1.
- Severus of Al'Ashmunein (1910). "Part 3: Agathon - Michael I (766 AD)". In EVETTS, B. (ed.). History of the Patriarchs of the Coptic Church of Alexandria.