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List of biogeographic provinces

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Biogeographic Province is a biotic subdivision of realms. The following list of biogeographic provinces was developed by Miklos Udvardy in 1975,[1][2] later modified by other authors.[according to whom?]

Contents

Afrotropical RealmEdit

Antarctic RealmEdit

  • Tundra communities and barren Antarctic desert
  • Subtropical and temperate rain forests or woodlands

Australian RealmEdit

  • Tropical humid forests
  • Subtropical and temperate rain forests or woodlands
  • Tropical dry or deciduous forests (incl. Monsoon forests) or woodlands
    • Northern Coastal
  • Evergreen sclerophyllous forests, scrubs or woodlands
    • Western Sclerophyll
    • Eastern Sclerophyll
    • Brigalow
  • Warm deserts and semideserts
    • Western Mulga
    • Central Desert
    • Southern Mulga/Saltbush
  • Tropical grasslands and savannas
    • Northern Savanna
    • Northern Grasslands
  • Temperate grasslands
    • Eastern Grasslands and Savannas

Indomalayan RealmEdit

Nearctic RealmEdit

Neotropical RealmEdit

Oceanian RealmEdit

Palearctic RealmEdit

Region codingEdit

The hierarchy of the scheme is (with early replaced terms in parenthesis):[1]

  • biogeographic realm (= biogeographic regions and subregions), with 8 categories
    • biogeographic province (= biotic province), with 193 categories, each characterized by a major biome or biome-complex
      • biome, with 14 types: tropical humid forests (1); subtropical and temperate rain forests or woodlands (2); temperate needle-leaf forests or woodlands (3); tropical dry of deciduous forests (including monsoon forests) or woodlands (4); temperate broad-lead forests or woodlands and subpolar deciduous thickets (5); evergreen sclerophyllous forests, scrubs or woodlands (6); warm deserts and semideserts (7); cold-winter (continental) deserts and semideserts (8); tundra communities and barren arctic desert (9); tropical grassland and savannas (10); temperate grasslands (11); mixed mountain and highland systems with complex zonation (12); mixed island systems (13); lake systems (14).

So, for example, the Australian Central Desert province is in the Australasian realm (6), is the 9th biogeographic province in that realm, and its biome falls withing "warm deserts and semideserts" (7), so it is coded 6.9.7.

The realms and provinces of the scheme are hence coded as follows:

  • 1.1.2 Sitkan province
  • 1.2.2. Oregonian province
  • 1.3.3 Yukon taiga province
  • 1.4.3 Canadian taiga province
  • 1.5.5. Eastern forest province
  • 1.6.5 Austroriparian province
  • 1.7.6 Californian province
  • 1.8.7 Sonoran province
  • 1.9.7 Chihuahuan province
  • 1.10.7 Tamaulipan province
  • 1.11.8 Great Basin province
  • 1.12.9 Aleutian Islands province
  • 1.13.9 Alaskan tundra province
  • 1.14.9 Canadian tundra province
  • 1.15.9 Arctic Archipelago province
  • 1.16.9 Greenland tundra province
  • 1.17.9 Arctic desert and icecap province
  • 1.18.11 Grasslands province
  • 1.19.12 Rocky Mountains province
  • 1.20.12 Sierra-Cascade province
  • 1.21.12 Madrean-Cordilleran province
  • 1.22.14 Great Lakes province
  • 2.1.2. Chinese Subtropical Forest province
  • 2.2.2 Japanese Evergreen Forest province (= Japanese Subtropical Forest)
  • 2.3.3 West Eurasian Taiga province
  • 2.4.3 East Siberian Taiga province
  • 2.5.5 Icelandian province (= Iceland)
  • 2.6.5 Subarctic Birchwoods province
  • 2.7.5 Kamchatkan province
  • 2.8.5 British Islands province (= British + Irish Forest)
  • 2.9.5 Atlantic province (West European Forest, in part)
  • 2.10.5 Boreonemoral province (Baltic Lowland, in part)
  • 2.11.5 Middle European Forest province (= East European Mixed Forest)
  • 2.12.5 Pannonian province (= Danubian Steppe)
  • 2.13.5 West Anatolian province
  • 2.14.5 Manchu-Japanese Mixed Forest province (= Manchurian + Japanese Mixed Forest)
  • 2.15.6 Oriental Deciduous Forest province
  • 2.16.6 Iberian Highlands province
  • 2.17.7 Mediterranean Sclerophyll province
  • 2.18.7 Sahara province
  • 2.19.7 Arabian Desert province (= Arabia)
  • 2.20.8 Anatolian-Iranian Desert province (= Turkish-Iranian Scrub-steppe)
  • 2.21.8 Turanian province (= Kazakh Desert Scrub-steppe)
  • 2.22.8 Takla-Makan-Gobi Desert steppe province
  • 2.23.8 Tibetan province
  • 2.24.9 Iranian Desert province
  • 2.25.9 Arctic Desert province
  • 2.26.9 Higharctic Tundra province (= Eurasian Tundra, in part)
  • 2.27.11 Lowarctic Tundra province (= Eurasian Tundra, in part)
  • 2.28.11 Atlas Steppe province (= Atlas Highlands)
  • 2.29.11 Pontian Steppe province (= Ukraine-Kazakh Steppe)
  • 2.30.11 Mongolian-Manchurian Steppe province (= Gobi + Manchurian Steppe)
  • 2.31.12 Scottish Highlands Highlands province
  • 2.32.12 Central European Highlands province
  • 2.33.12 Balkan Highlands province
  • 2.34.12 Caucaso-Iranian Highlands (= Caucasus + Kurdistan-Iran) province
  • 2.35.12 Altai Highlands province
  • 2.36.12 Pamir-Tian-Shan Highlands province
  • 2.37.12 Hindu Kush Highlands province
  • 2.38.12 Himalayan Highlands province
  • 2.39.12 Szechwan Highlands province
  • 2.40.13 Macaronesian Islands province (= 4 island provinces)
  • 2.41.13 Ryukyu Islands province
  • 2.42.14 Lake Ladoga province
  • 2.43.14 Aral Sea province
  • 2.44.14 Lake Baikal province
  • 3.1.1 Guinean Rain Forest province
  • 3.2.1 Congo Rain Forest province
  • 3.3.1 Malagasy Rain Forest province
  • 3.4.4 West African Woodland/savanna province
  • 3.5.4 East African Woodland/savanna province
  • 3.6.4 Congo Woodland/savanna province
  • 3.7.4 Miombo Woodland/savanna province
  • 3.8.4 South African Woodland/savanna province
  • 3.9.4 Malagasy Woodland/savanna province
  • 3.10.4 Malagasy Thorn Forest province
  • 3.11.6 Cape Sclerophyll province
  • 3.12.7 Western Sahel province
  • 3.13.7 Eastern Sahel province
  • 3.14.7 Somalian province
  • 3.15.7 Namib province
  • 3.16.7 Kalahari province
  • 3.17.7 Karroo province
  • 3.18.12 Ethiopian Highlands province
  • 3.19.12 Guinean Highlands province
  • 3.20.12 Central African Highlands province
  • 3.21.12 East African Highlands province
  • 3.22.12 South African Highlands province
  • 3.23.13 Ascension and St. Helena Islands province
  • 3.24.13 Comores Islands and Aldabra province
  • 3.25.13 Mascarene Islands province
  • 3.26.14 Lake Rudolf province
  • 3.27.14 Lake Ukerewe (Victoria) province
  • 3.28.14 Lake Tanganyika province
  • 3.29.14 Lake Malawi (Nyasa) province
  • 4.1.1 Malabar Rainforest province
  • 4.2.1 Ceylonese Rainforest province
  • 4.3.1 Bengalian Rainforest province
  • 4.4.1 Burman Rainforest province
  • 4.5.1 Indochinese Rainforest province
  • 4.6.1 South Chinese Rainforest province
  • 4.7.1 Malayan Rainforest province
  • 4.8.4 Indus-Ganges Monsoon Forest province
  • 4.9.4 Burma Monsoon Forest province
  • 4.10.4 Thailandian Monsoon Forest province
  • 4.11.4 Mahanadian province
  • 4.12.4 Coromandel province
  • 4.13.4 Ceylonese Monsoon Forest province
  • 4.14.4 Deccan Thorn Forest province
  • 4.15.7 Thar Desert province
  • 4.16.12 Seychelles and Amirantes Islands province
  • 4.17.12 Laccadives Islands province
  • 4.18.12 Maldives and Chagos Islands province
  • 4.19.12 Cocos-Keeling and Christmas Islands province
  • 4.20.12 Andaman and Nicobar Islands province
  • 4.21.12 Sumatra province
  • 4.22.12 Java province
  • 4.23.12 Lesser Sunda Islands province
  • 4.24.12 Celebes province
  • 4.25.12 Borneo province
  • 4.26.12 Philippines province
  • 4.27.12 Taiwan province
  • 5.1.13 Papuan province
  • 5.2.13 Micronesian province
  • 5.3.13 Hawaiian province
  • 5.4.13 Southeastern Polynesian province
  • 5.5.13 Central Polynesian province
  • 5.6.13 New Caledonian province
  • 5.7.13 East-Melanesian province
  • 6.1.1 Queensland Coastal province
  • 6.2.2 Tasmanian province
  • 6.3.4 Northern Coastal province
  • 6.4.6 Western Sclerophyll province
  • 6.5.6 Southern Sclerophyll province
  • 6.6.6 Eastern Sclerophyll province≠
  • 6.7.6 Brigalow province
  • 6.8.7 Western Mulga province
  • 6.9.7 Central Desert province
  • 6.10.7 Southern Mulga/Saltbush province
  • 6.11.10 Northern Savanna province
  • 6.12.10 Northern Grasslands province
  • 6.13.11 Eastern Grasslands and Savannas province
  • 7.1.2 Neozealandia province
  • 7.2.9 Maudlandia province
  • 7.3.9 Marielandia province
  • 7.4.9 Insulantarctica province
  • 8.1.1 Campechean province (= Campeche)
  • 8.2.1 Panamanian province
  • 8.3.1 Colombian Coastal province
  • 8.4.1. Guyanan province
  • 8.5.1 Amazonian province
  • 8.6.1. Madeiran province
  • 8.7.1 Serra do mar province (= Bahian coast)
  • 8.8.2 Brazilian Rain Forest province (= Brazilian Deciduous Forest)
  • 8.9.2 Brazilian Planalto province (= Brazilian Araucaria Forest)
  • 8.10.2 Valdivian Forest province (= Chilean Temperate Rain Forest, in part)
  • 8.11.2 Chilean Nothofagus province (= Chilean Temperate Rain Forest, in part)
  • 8.12.4 Everglades province
  • 8.13.4 Sinaloan province
  • 8.14.4 Guerreran province
  • 8.15.4 Yucatecan province (= Yucatán)
  • 8.16.4 Central American province (= Carib-Pacific)
  • 8.17.4 Venezuelan Dry Forest province
  • 8.18.4 Venezuelan Deciduous Forest province
  • 8.19.4 Equadorian Dry Forest province
  • 8.20.4 Caatinga province
  • 8.21.4 Gran Chaco province
  • 8.22.5 Chilean Araucaria Forest province
  • 8.23.6 Chilean Sclerophyll province
  • 8.24.7 Pacific Desert province (= Peruvian + Atacama Desert)
  • 8.25.7 Monte (= Argentinian Thorn-scrub) province
  • 8.26.8 Patagonian province
  • 8.27.10 Llanos province
  • 8.28.10 Campos Limpos province (= Guyana highlands)
  • 8.29.10 Babacu province
  • 8.30.10 Campos Cerrados province (= Campos)
  • 8.31.11 Argentinian Pampas province (= Pampas)
  • 8.32.11 Uruguayan Pampas province
  • 8.33.12 Northern Andean province (= Northern Andes)
  • 8.34.12 Colombian Montane province
  • 8.35.12 Yungas province (= Andean cloud forest)
  • 8.36.12 Puna province
  • 8.37.12 Southern Andean province (= Southern Andes)
  • 8.38.13 Bahamas-Bermudan province (= Bahamas + Bermuda)
  • 8.39.13 Cuban province
  • 8.40.13 Greater Aritillean province (= Jamaica + Hispaniola + Puerto Rico)
  • 8.41.13 Lesser Antillean province (= Lesser Antilles)
  • 8.42.13 Revilla Gigedo Island province
  • 8.43.13 Cocos Island province
  • 8.44.13 Galapagos Islands province
  • 8.45.13 Fernando de Noronja Island province
  • 8.46.13 South Trinidade Island province
  • 8.47.14 Lake Titicaca province

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Udvardy, M. D. F. (1975). A classification of the biogeographical provinces of the world. IUCN Occasional Paper no. 18. Morges, Switzerland: IUCN.
  2. ^ Udvardy, Miklos D. F. (1975) World Biogeographical Provinces (Map). The CoEvolution Quarterly, Sausalito, California. link.

BibliographyEdit

  • Dassman, Raymond (1976). "Biogeographical Provinces". CoEvolution Quarterly, Number 11, Fall 1976.