Structure and characteristicsEdit
B. bifidum is a Gram-positive bacterium that is not motile, anaerobic, and not spore-forming. The bacterium is rod-shaped and can be found living in clusters, pairs, or even independently. The majority of the population of B. bifidum is found in the colon, lower small intestine, breast milk, and often in the vagina.B. bifidum is an essential bacteria found in the human intestine. When it is low or absent all together in the human intestine, it is an indication of being in an unhealthy state. Intestinal flora can be improved if someone takes oral B. bifidum. Also, oral B. bifidum is used for other things such as therapy for enteric and hepatic disorders, for activating the immune response, and for preventing some cancers.B. bifidum decreases as people age. As B. bifidum decreases, other gut bacteria such as Lactobacilli, Enterococci, Enterobacteria and Clostridia increase. All of these increase an older adults risk for cancer and decrease the ability for their liver to function adequately and efficiently.
The use of B. bifidum in probiotic applications may reduce the chances of acute diarrhea and the risk of E. coli infections, and contributes to the maintenance of vaginal homeostasis. Intestinal microbial balance is important for an individuals digestive system. Some people keep this balance through diet alone where others take probiotics, which are microbial supplements. Consuming dairy products seem to be the most efficient way to keep a healthy gut flora. B. bifidum is an important intestinal microbe. One study shows that because hard cheese has a higher pH, higher fat content and is more solid, it is more effective in carrying probiotics such as B. bifidum to a person through ingestion. 
The manipulation of the gut flora is complex and may cause bacteria-host interactions. Although probiotics, in general, are considered safe, there are concerns about their use in certain cases. Some people, such as those with compromised immune systems, short bowel syndrome, central venous catheters, heart valve disease and premature infants, may be at higher risk for adverse events. Rarely, consumption of probiotics may cause bacteremia, and sepsis, potentially fatal infections in children with lowered immune systems or who are already critically ill.
- Parte, A.C. "Bifidobacterium". Www.bacterio.net.
- Darusman, H.S.; Rahminiwati, M.; Sadiah, S.; Batubara, I.; Darusman, L.K.; Mitsunaga, T. (2 November 2011). "Indonesian Kepel Fruit (Stelechocarpus burahol) as Oral Deodorant". Research Journal of Medicinal Plants. 6 (2): 180–188. doi:10.3923/rjmp.2012.180.188. ISSN 1819-3455. OCLC 761052058. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
- "Bifidobacterium bifidum". NCBI taxonomy. Bethesda, MD: National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
- Palmer, Chana, et al. "Development of the human infant intestinal microbiota." PLoS biology 5.7 (2007): e177.
- Mitsuoka, T. Journal of Industrial Microbiology (1990) 6: 263. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01575871
- Kleessen, Brigitta, et al. "Effects of inulin and lactose on fecal microflora, microbial activity, and bowel habit in elderly constipated persons." The American journal of clinical nutrition 65.5 (1997): 1397-1402
- Selle K, Klaenhammer TR (2013). "Genomic and phenotypic evidence for probiotic influences of Lactobacillus gasseri on human health". FEMS Microbiol Rev (Review). 37 (6): 915–35. doi:10.1111/1574-6976.12021. PMID 23488471.
- ÖZER, BARBAROS, et al. “Effect of Microencapsulation on Viability of Lactobacillus Acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium Bifidum BB-12 During Kasar Cheese Ripening.” International Journal of Dairy Technology, vol. 61, no. 3, Aug. 2008, p. 237. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=shib&db=edb&AN=34186221&site=eds-live
- Durchschein F, Petritsch W, Hammer HF (2016). "Diet therapy for inflammatory bowel diseases: The established and the new". World J Gastroenterol (Review). 22 (7): 2179–94. doi:10.3748/wjg.v22.i7.2179. PMC 4734995. PMID 26900283.
- Boyle RJ, Robins-Browne RM, Tang ML (2006). "Probiotic use in clinical practice: what are the risks?". Am J Clin Nutr (Review). 83 (6): 1256–64, quiz 1446–7. doi:10.1093/ajcn/83.6.1256. PMID 16762934.
- Doron S, Snydman DR (2015). "Risk and safety of probiotics". Clin Infect Dis (Review). 60 Suppl 2: S129–34. doi:10.1093/cid/civ085. PMC 4490230. PMID 25922398.
- Singhi SC, Kumar S (2016). "Probiotics in critically ill children". F1000Res (Review). 5: 407. doi:10.12688/f1000research.7630.1. PMC 4813632. PMID 27081478.