Białystok Voivodeship (1945–1975)

Białystok Voivodeship (Polish: Województwo białostockie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland from 1944 to 1975, when its purview was separated into eastern Suwałki Voivodeship, Łomża Voivodeship and Białystok Voivodeship (1975–1998). Its capital city was Białystok. The establishment of Podlaskie Voivodeship in 1999 was essentially a reunion of the areas of Białystok Voivodeship (1945–1975).

Białystok Voivodeship
Województwo białostockie
Voivodeship of Poland
1944–1975
POL województwo białostockie 1950.svg
Location of Białystok Voivodeship within the People's Republic of Poland (1950–1975).
CapitalBiałystok
Area
 • Coordinates53°08′N 23°09′E / 53.133°N 23.150°E / 53.133; 23.150Coordinates: 53°08′N 23°09′E / 53.133°N 23.150°E / 53.133; 23.150
History 
• Established
1944
• Disestablished
1975
Political subdivisions24 counties (powiaty)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Belastok Region
Polish Underground State
Białystok Voivodeship (1975-1998)
Łomża Voivodeship
Suwałki Voivodeship

The area's administrative region of 1950 amounted to 23 201 square kilometers, which was later reduced to 23 153 square kilometers. In 1946 the population approximately 941 000 and in 1970 it had approximately 1 176 000 inhabitants.

PoliticsEdit

From 1945 to 1950 served as Voivodes Jerzy Sztachelski, Stefan Dybowski, Stanisław Krupka and Julian Horodecki.

Formation of the Voivodeship party structureEdit

Creation of its structures began only after July 27, 1944 when the Soviet Armed Forces entered Bialystok. In August this year the PPR Provincial Committee was created. It should be added that none of the members of this committee she was not formally a member of this party. First members in the Bialystok Voivodeship they were not admitted to the Polish Workers' Party until August 21, 1944, during a meeting of the Provincial Committee. Following the unification of the PPS and PPR, The Polish United Workers' Party in the Białystok Voivodeship included about 16 thousand former PPR members and 3.5 thousand members of the former PPS. Secretaries 73% newly created basic party organizations were members of the former Polish Workers' Party, while members of the aforementioned party organizations were appointed deputy secretaries PPS.[1]

On December 23, 1948, during the meeting of the provincial committees of the former PPR and PPS, the Provincial Committee and the Executive Committee of the Polish United Workers' Party in Bialystok were elected. Mieczysław Tureniec from the PPR was elected the first secretary of the Polish United Workers' Party and Stefan Dąbek from the former PPS as Second Secretary.

In 1944 to 1956, the function of the first secretary of the Polish United Workers' Party Voivodeship Committee in Bialystok was held by the following people: Edwarda Orłowska (1944-1945), Mieczysław Bodalski (1945-1947), Mieczysław Tureniec, Józef Faruga, Józef Rygliszyn, Grzegorz Wojciechowski, Stanisław Brodziński and Jan Jabłoński. On the wave of October 1956 transformations, for a period of less than three weeks Antoni Laskowski was the secretary. Arkadiusz Łaszewicz took this position in November 1956 following the political overhaul which followed the Polish October.[2]

Voivodeship National CouncilEdit

At the state apparatus level, Bialystok Voivodeship National Council (the Voivodeship regional parliament) was created The first, inaugural meeting of the Voivodeship National Council in 57a Warszawska street in Bialystok was held on August 28, 1944, with 23 members. dr Jerzy Sztachelski, was elected as the chairman, the vice-chairmen in the persons of Jakub Antoniuk and Władysław Nieśmiałek and the secretary general - Tadeusz Jackowski. The creation of WRN from Bialystok took place on the basis of the Provisional Statute of the National Councils. Due to Sztachelski's appointment as Voivode, at the meeting of the Voivodeship National Council on October 21, 1944, Jan Kuśniarek was appointed to replace him as the head of that body with Jakub Antoniuk as deputy and Bolesław Sokół and Eugenia Krassowska as members of the presidium. On February 1945 Tadeusz Jackowski became the head with Bolesław Podedworny as his deputy and Edward Orłowska, Bolesław Sokół and Eugenia Krassowska as members of the presidium.[3] It was later led by Julian Horodecki (14.04.1950–13.04.1952), Mieczysław Moczar (22.04.1952–15.12.1954), Józef Szczęśniak (15.04.1954–01.12.1956), Stanisław Juchnicki (01.12.1956–07.02.1958), Jerzy Popko (07.12.1958–21.11.1962), Stefan Żmijko (21.11.1962–04.03.1972 and Zygmunt Sprycha (04.03.1972–12.12.1973)

HistoryEdit

In early 1944, when the Red Army crossed the Polish frontier before the war, the Bialystok Voivodeship was divided administratively by the German-occupied areas incorporated into the Third Reich (Bezirk Bialystok) and the occupied territories of the USSR (Reich Commissariat East).

Over the next months, the front moved into the pre-war Polish territory. However, according to the findings of the Tehran Conference of 1943, it was known that the pre-war Polish eastern territories would be incorporated into the Soviet Union and eastern territories of Germany would be incorporated into Polish (more precisely define these territorial changes occurred during the Yalta Conference and the Potsdam Conference ). For this reason, the Polish territories occupied by the Red Army in early 1944 did not create the Polish administration. Only after crossing the line in July 1944 the Bug, which would be the future eastern border of Poland, Polish authorities were established in the form of the Polish Committee of National Liberation (PCNL).

A month after the start of its operations, PCNL issued the Decree of the Polish Committee of National Liberation of August 21, 1944 on the Procedure for the appointment of general administration authorities and second instance,[4] which came into force on 22 August 1944. In this decree (Article 11), it abolished the administrative structure introduced by Germany and restored the Bialystok Voivodeship administrative divisions from the Second Polish Republic. At the time, the front line ran in front of the Vistula and Narew, and the formal authority PKWN had was only in part of the pre-war Bialystok Voivodeship.

29 September 1944, administration of 17 (of the 23) districts of Belastok Region (including the city of Białystok) and an additional three (Siemiatycze, Hajnówka and Kleszczele) of the Brest Region was passed to the Polish Committee of National Liberation from the Byelorussian SSR.

31 December 1944 the Provisional Government of the Republic of Poland replaced the Polish Committee of National Liberation.

14 March 1945 the Provisional Government of the Republic of Poland made the initial administrative division of the German lands included in the Polish (so-called Recovered Territories ), even before taking all of these areas, creating them four administrative districts do not have the status of regions: Region I (Opole Silesia), District II (Lower Silesia), District III (West Pomerania), District IV (Mazury).

The Border Agreement between Poland and the USSR of 16 August 1945 established the borders between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and the Republic of Poland. It was signed by the Provisional Government of National Unity (Polish: Tymczasowy Rząd Jedności Narodowej).

August 18, 1945 transferred Lomza County from the Warsaw Voivodeship to the Białystok Voivodeship.[5][6]

September 25, 1945 part of the counties of the Recovered Territories transmitted under the management of the Białystok Voivodeship (Gołdap, Ełk and Olecko) from District IV (Mazury). These districts have provisionally become parts of the Voivodeship, although de jure continue to form part of Recovered Territories (MP, 1945 No. 29, item. 77). On June 28, 1946, the areas of the Recovered Territories assigned to Białystok Voivodeship were formally transferred.[7]

Some cities lost civic rights without joining larger neighboring cities: Dąbrowa Białostocka*, Kleszczele*, Krynki, Sokoły, Suchowola*, Tykocin* (1950)[8]

1 July 1952 created Siemiatycze County.[9]

1954 the following Counties were created: hajnowski,[10] łapy,[11] moniecki, zambrow [12]

Between 1954 and 1972, gromadas formed the lowest tier of local government in the voivodeship, taking over the role previously played by gminy. A gromada would generally consist of several villages, but they were smaller units than the gminy had been. In 1973 gminy were reintroduced and gromadas abolished.

1956 the following counties were created: dąbrowski (białostocki),[13] sejneński [14]

Administrative divisionsEdit

Województwo białostockie (1946)Edit

Powiat Pow.(km²) Ludność Mieszk.
/km²
Miasta Gminy Siedziba
Województwo białostockie
Augustowski 1641 42 178 26 1 7   Augustów
Białostocki 3350 137 250 41 8 15   Białystok
Bielski 4628 198 470 43 6 17   Bielsk Podlaski
Ełcki 1115 21 595 19 1 12   Ełk
Gołdapski 613 2 592 4 1 4   Gołdap
Łomżyński 2657 140 657 53 6 19   Łomża
Olecki 856 12 282 14 1 6   Olecko
Sokólski 2531 89 939 36 1 12   Sokółka
Suwalski 2204 79 354 36 2 16   Suwałki
Szczuczyński 1451 55 910 39 3 10   Grajewo
Wysokomazowiecki 1467 80 577 55 4 10   Wysokie Mazowieckie
m. Białystok 39 56 759 1456 1 0   Białystok

Województwo białostockieEdit

Powiat Siedziba powiatu Liczba
miast
Liczba
gmin
Liczba
gromad
Miasta (wytłuszczone) i gminy (z liczbą gromad w nawiasach)
Województwo białostockie – 1 VII 1952 r.
Augustowski   Augustów 1 7 172 miasto AugustówBargłów (22) • Dębowo (10) • Dowspuda (25) • Kolnica (17) • Lipsk (39) • Szczebro-Olszanka (31) • Sztabin (28)
Białostocki   Białystok 8 15 432 miasto Choroszczmiasto Goniądzmiasto Knyszynmiasto Starosielcemiasto Supraślmiasto Surażmiasto Wasilkówmiasto ZabłudówBacieczki (21) • Barszczewo (32) • Czarna Wieś (18) • Dojlidy (16) • Goniądz (27) • Gródek (35) • Jaświły (28) • Juchnowiec (28) • Kalinówka (37) • Krypno (26) • Michałowo (33) • Obrubniki (26) • Trzcianne (28) • Zabłudów (45) • Zawyki (32)
Białystok miasto   Białystok 1 0 0 miasto Białystok
Bielski   Bielsk Podlaski 3 27 321 miasto Bielsk Podlaskimiasto Brańskmiasto HajnówkaAugustowo (10) • Białowieża (4) • Boćki (15) • Brańsk (14) • Chraboły (10) • Czeremcha (9) • Czyże (11) • Dobromil (10) • Domanowo (10) • Dubicze Cerkiewne (11) • Hajnówka (17) • Holonki (15) • Klejniki (10) • Kleszczele (11) • Łosinka (15) • Łubin Kościelny (11) • Narew (16) • Narewka (19) • Orla (15) • Pasynki (10) • Policzna (9) • Rudka (7) • Ryboły (8) • Śnieżki (13) • Topczewo (17) • Widowo (6) • Wyszki (18)
Ełcki   Ełk 1 12 153 miasto EłkBajtkowo (11) • Ełk (11) • Golubie (13) • Kalinowo (18) • Klusy (9) • Nowa Wieś Ełcka (10) • Pisanica (15) • Prostki (16) • Stare Juchy (18) • Straduny (9) • Wiśniowo Ełckie (14) • Woszczele (9)
Gołdapski   Gołdap 1 4 50 miasto GołdapDubeninki (15) • Górne (7) • Grabowo (17) • Jabłońskie (11)
Grajewski   Grajewo 3 8 167 miasto Grajewomiasto Rajgródmiasto Szczuczyn Bełda (26) • Białaszewo (23) • Bogusze (27) • Pruska (15) • Radziłów (19) • Ruda (10) • Szczuczyn (35) • Wąsosz (12)
Kolneński   Kolno 2 8 177 miasto Kolnomiasto StawiskiCzerwone (21) • Gawrychy (20) • Grabowo (27) • Lachowo (23) • Łyse (17) • Mały Płock (20) • Stawiski (29) • Turośl (20)
Łomżyński   Łomża 4 16 463 miasto Jedwabnemiasto Łomżamiasto Nowogródmiasto ZambrówBożejewo (25) • Chlebiotki (26) • Długobórz (46) • Drozdowo (29) • Jedwabne (36) • Kołaki (25) • Kupiski (19) • Lubotyń (23) • Miastkowo (24) • Przytuły (41) • Puchały (29) • Rogienice (25) • Rutki (36) • Szczepankowo (32) • Szumowo (18) • Śniadowo (29)
Olecki   Olecko 1 6 91 miasto OleckoBorawskie (16) • Mieruniszki (10) • Sokółki (17) • Świętajno (15) • Wieliczki (20) • Zalesie (13)
Siemiatycki
(od 1 VII 1952)
  Siemiatycze 3 18 222 miasto Ciechanowiecmiasto Drohiczynmiasto SiemiatyczeBaciki Średnie (9) • Boratyniec Ruski (12) • Czartajew (16) • Dołubowo (10) • Drohiczyn (18) • Dziadkowice (16) • Grodzisk (16) • Klukowicze (14) • Kosiorki (10) • Krupice (10) • Mielnik (7) • Milejczyce (12) • Nurzec (12) • Ostrożany (13) • Perlejewo (13) • Pobikry (13) • Śledzianów (10) • Winna Chroły (11)
Sokólski   Sokółka 1 12 360 miasto SokółkaBabiki (18) • Dąbrowa (45) • Janów (32) • Korycin (43) • Krynki (19) • Kuźnica (21) • Nowy Dwór (15) • Sidra (21) • Sokółka (51) • Suchowola (47) • Szudziałowo (35) • Zalesie (13)
Suwalski   Suwałki 2 16 441 miasto Sejnymiasto SuwałkiBerżniki (26) • Filipów (22) • Giby (33) • Huta (26) • Jeleniewo (30) • Kadaryszki (35) • Koniecbór (15) • Krasnopol (31) • Krasnowo (22) • Kuków (36) • Pawłówka (21) • Przerośl (17) • Puńsk (33) • Szypliszki (41) • Wiżajny (27) • Wólka (26)
Wysokomazowiecki   Wysokie Mazowieckie 2 10 412 miasto Łapymiasto Wysokie MazowieckieCzyżew (36) • Klukowo (43) • Kobylin (41) • Kowalewszczyzna (21) • Piekuty (42) • Poświętne (44) • Sokoły (45) • Szepietowo (64) • Tykocin (22) • Wysokie Mazowieckie (54)

List of Counties in 1967:

Adjacent voivodeshipsEdit

The Voivodeship shares a border on the east with the Olsztyn Voivodeship, the southwest with the Warsaw Voivodeship, the south with the Lublin Voivodeship, the north with the RSFSR's Kaliningrad Oblast, the northeast with the Lithuanian SSR and the east with the Byelorussian SSR.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Agnieszka Brzostek. Proces tworzenia organów administracji terenowej w województwie białostockim w latach 1944–1945, pp. 293-295. in Studia Warminskie 54 (2017)
  2. ^ Agnieszka Brzostek. Proces tworzenia organów administracji terenowej w województwie białostockim w latach 1944–1945, pp. 299-300. in Studia Warminskie 54 (2017)
  3. ^ M. Gnatowski. Kształtowanie się władzy ludowej na Bialostocczyźnie w latach 1944–1947
  4. ^ (({{{title}}}, Dz. U. z 1944 r. Nr 5, poz. 22 ) Coll. Laws of 1944, No. 2, item. 8 )
  5. ^ {{{title}}}, Dz. U. z 1945 r. Nr 27, poz. 168
  6. ^ {{{title}}}, Dz. U. z 1945 r. Nr 27, poz. 167
  7. ^ (Council of Ministers of 29 May 1946 on the provisional administrative division of the Recovered Territories., Coll. Laws of 1946 No. 28, item. 177 {{{title}}}, Dz. U. z 1946 r. Nr 28, poz. 177 )
  8. ^ Towns with asterisk regained their civic rights in the later period.
  9. ^ ({{{title}}}, Dz. U. z 1952 r. Nr 17, poz. 102 Dz. U. z 1952 r. Nr 17, poz. 102)
  10. ^ (Dz. U. z 1953 r. Nr 41, poz. 192)
  11. ^ (Dz. U. z 1954 r. Nr 49, poz. 232)
  12. ^ (Dz. U. z 1954 r. Nr 49, poz. 233 )
  13. ^ (Dz. U. z 1954 r. Nr 6, poz. 15)
  14. ^ (Dz. U. z 1955 r. Nr 44, poz. 290)

Further readingEdit

  • Brzostek, Agnieszka. Przyczynek do działalności Wojewódzkiej Rady Narodowej w Białymstoku w latach 1944-1950. Studia Podlaskie T. 15, 2005, pp. 187-202