The Bhadanakas was a kingdom[1][2][unreliable source?] ruled over a wide area in the 11th and 12th centuries.[3] The Bhadanakas mainly resided in Mathura, Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur, Karauli region. According to historian Dasharatha Sharma, when King Prithviraj Chauhan of Shakumbhari attacked Bhadanakas, at that time on the eastern border of this state was the Gwalior state of Chambal river in the northeastern direction its boundaries were up to Yamuna river and Kannauj state of Gahadwals.[4][1][unreliable source?]

Bhadanaka Kingdom
Spoken languagesApabhramsa, Sankrit
Today part ofIndia

TerritoryEdit

The Contemporary scholar Siddhasain Suri has also described the same region of Bhadanaka country, he has said that it is situated between Kannauj and Harshapur (Haras in Shekhawati). He mentions Kamagga (Kaman, forty miles west of Mathura) and Siroha (near Gwalior) as sacred Jain sites of Bhadanaka country. Apart from these, Tejpal, the author of Apabhramsa Manuscript "Sambhavnath Charit", has described the city of Sripath situated in Bhadanaka country.[5] According to historian Dasharatha Sharma, this city was the capital of this state. This town of Shripath (santipur) is identified with modern Bayana. According to 3 historians, Bhadanaka has been called Bhayanaya in the pre-medieval Apabhramsa language, and the word Bayana has originated in the post-medieval period from the word Bhayanaya. In this way, the modern earnest money was the focal point of the country. The strong fort of Tahangarh( Timangarh) is situated 14 miles south of Bayana, which was the defense cantonment of this state.[6][7]

We get information about the Bhadanakas from many contemporary literary and archival sources. Rajasekhar, the court poet of the Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty emperor Mahipal of Kannauj, in his book 'Kavyamimansha', has called him a speaker of Apabhramsa language. This Apabhramsa language is also called Suraseni Apabhramsa, because the area of ​​Bhadanaka country and ancient Suraseni district was almost the same. This Suraseni Apabhramsa is the mother of modern Brajbhasha.[8][9]

HistoryEdit

In the second half of the 12th century, the Bhadanakas had a political struggle with the Chauhans of Shakumbhari. Chauhan was inspired by the spirit of Digvijaya and wanted to build an empire in North India.[10]

The Chauhans attacked Bhadanakas at least twice. We get to know about the first attack on Bhadanak from the 'Bijoliya inscription' of Chauhan king Someshwar of 1169 AD. There was a fierce battle between the Chauhans and the Bhadanakas, but this war could not prove to be decisive, although the Chauhans have claimed their victory in the Bijolia inscription.[11] 

BibliographyEdit

  • Dasharatha Sharma (1959). Early Chauhān Dynasties. S. Chand / Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 9780842606189.
  • Iqtidar Alam Khan (2008). Historical Dictionary of Medieval India. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810864016.
  • R. B. Singh (1964). History of the Chāhamānas. N. Kishore. OCLC 11038728.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Rahi, Dr Javaid (2018-01-01). "The GUJJARS Vol -04 History and Culture of Gujjar Tribe : Ed. Dr. Javaid Rahi". The Gujjars. 4.
  2. ^ Rahi, Dr Javaid. "The GUJJARS -Vol : 01 A Book on History and Culture of Gujjar Tribe : Ed Javaid Rahi". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. ^ Bahadur, Krishna Prakash (1977). Caste, tribes & culture of India: Assam. Delhi: Ess Ess Publications. ISBN 978-81-7000-008-2. OL 18809571M.
  4. ^ Budiharjo, Bayu (2018). "Google, Translate This Website Page-Flipping through Google Translate's Ability". Proceedings of the Fourth Prasasti International Seminar on Linguistics (Prasasti 2018). Paris, France: Atlantis Press. doi:10.2991/prasasti-18.2018.84. ISBN 978-94-6252-542-9.
  5. ^ Gupta, Parmanand (1989). Geography from ancient Indian coins & seals. New Delhi: Concept Pub. Co. ISBN 81-7022-248-6. OCLC 21165871.
  6. ^ Venkatesha (2000). South Indian feudatory dynasties. New Delhi: Sharada Pub. House. ISBN 81-85616-62-0. OCLC 43905073.
  7. ^ "Timangarh Fort, Visit to Timangarh Karauli - Rajasthan Tours to India". www.rajasthantourstoindia.com. Retrieved 2022-05-23.
  8. ^ "History Indian Administration Vol by Puri - AbeBooks". www.abebooks.com. Retrieved 2022-05-22.
  9. ^ Haryana. K. S. Singh, Madan Lal Sharma, A. K. Bhatia, Anthropological Survey of India. New Delhi: Published on behalf of Anthropological Survey of India by Manohar Publishers. 1994. ISBN 81-7304-091-5. OCLC 34522307.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  10. ^ Somānī, Rāmavallabha (1981). Prithviraj Chauhan and his times. Jaipur: Publication Scheme. OL 3929430M.
  11. ^ Sharma, Dasharatha (2002). Early Chauhān dynasties : a study of Chauhān political history, Chauhān political institution, and life in the Chauhān dominions, from 800 to 1316 A.D. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0492-9. OCLC 609013163.