Besleney Kabardian dialect

The Besleney Kabardian dialect (Adyghe: Беслъэнеибзэ, Besłæneibzæ [bejsɬanejəbza]) is one of the East Circassian dialects and usually considered a dialect of Kabardian. However, because the Besleney tribe lived at the center of Circassia, the Besleney dialect also shares a large number of features with dialects of Western Circassian.

Besleney Kabardian dialect
Native toTurkey
Northwest Caucasian
Language codes
ISO 639-3

PhonologyEdit

Palatalized velar stopsEdit

Like some other Kabardian dialects, the Besleney dialect has a palatalized voiced velar stop [ɡʲ] ⟨гь⟩, a palatalized voiceless velar stop [kʲ] ⟨кь⟩ and a palatalized velar ejective [kʲʼ] ⟨кӏь⟩ that were merged with дж [d͡ʒ], ч [t͡ʃ] and кӏ [t͡ʃʼ] in most Circassian dialects.[1]

  • Besleney гь [ɡʲ] became дж [d͡ʒ] in other dialects:
Meaning Besleney Standard Adyghe Kabardian
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
chicken гед ɡʲad чэты t͡ʃatə джэд d͡ʒad
cat геду ɡʲadəw чэтыу t͡ʃatəw джэду d͡ʒadəw
shirt гянэ ɡʲaːna джанэ dʒaːna джанэ dʒaːna
to study
to read
еген jaɡʲan еджэн jadʒan еджэн jadʒan
glass абгь ʔaːbgʲ апч ʔaːpt͡ʃ абдж ʔaːbd͡ʒ
game гегу ɡʲagʷ джэгу d͡ʒagʷ джэгу d͡ʒagʷ
bitter дыгь dəɡʲ дыджы dəd͡ʒə дыдж dəd͡ʒ
sick сымаге səmaːɡʲa сымаджэ səmaːd͡ʒa сымаджэ səmaːd͡ʒa
evil бзаге bzaːɡʲa бзаджэ bzaːd͡ʒa бзаджэ bzaːd͡ʒa
valley къолаге qʷalaːɡʲa къоладжэ qʷalaːd͡ʒa къуэладжэ qʷalaːd͡ʒa
noon щэгегъо ɕaɡʲaːʁʷa щэджагъо ɕad͡ʒaːʁʷa шэджагъуэ ʃad͡ʒaːʁʷa
infidel геур ɡʲaːwər джаур d͡ʒaːwər джаур d͡ʒaːwər
  • Besleney кь [] became ч [t͡ʃ] in other dialects:
Meaning Besleney Standard Adyghe Kabardian
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
throat кий kʲəj чый t͡ʃəj чий t͡ʃəj
spleen ке kʲa чэ t͡ʃa чэ t͡ʃa
to cough пскен pskʲan псчэн pst͡ʃan псчэн pst͡ʃan
  • Besleney кӏь [kʲʼ] became кӏ [t͡ʃʼ] in other dialects:
Meaning Besleney Standard Adyghe Kabardian
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
egg кӏенкӏе kʲʼankʲʼa кӏэнкӏэ t͡ʃʼant͡ʃʼa кӏэнкӏэ t͡ʃʼant͡ʃʼa
ceiling кӏяфэ kʲʼaːfa кӏашъо t͡ʃʼaːʃʷa кӏафэ t͡ʃʼaːfa
rope кӏяпсэ kʲʼaːpsa кӏапсэ t͡ʃʼaːpsa кӏапсэ t͡ʃʼaːpsa
gun кӏерахъо kʲʼaraːχʷa кӏэрахъо t͡ʃʼaraːχʷa кӏэрахъуэ t͡ʃʼaraːχʷa
long кӏихь kʲʼəħ кӏыхьэ t͡ʃʼəħa кӏыхь t͡ʃʼəħ
to kill укӏин wkʲʼən укӏын wt͡ʃʼən укӏын wt͡ʃʼən
to move away ӏукӏин ʔʷəkʲʼən ӏукӏын ʔʷət͡ʃʼən ӏукӏын ʔʷət͡ʃʼən
key ӏункӏибзэ ʔʷənkʲʼəbza ӏункӏыбзэ ʔʷənt͡ʃʼəbza ӏункӏыбз ʔʷənt͡ʃʼəbz
beard жьакӏе ʑaːkʲʼa жакӏэ ʒaːt͡ʃʼa жьакӏэ ʑaːt͡ʃʼa
poor тхьэмыщкӏь tħaməɕkʲʼ тхьамыкӏ tħaːmət͡ʃʼ тхьэмыщкӏэ tħaməɕt͡ʃʼa
to be ashamed укӏитэн wəkʲʼətan укӏытэн wət͡ʃʼətan укӏытэн wət͡ʃʼətan

Palato-alveolar affricatesEdit

The palato-alveolar affricate consonants дж [d͡ʒ], ч [t͡ʃ] and кӏ [t͡ʃʼ] and the retroflex affricate consonants чъ [ʈʂ] and чӏ [ʈʂʼ] became palato-alveolar дж [d͡ʒ], дж [d͡ʒ], кӏ [t͡ʃʼ], дж [d͡ʒ] and кӏ [t͡ʃʼ] in Besleney while in Kabardian they became alveolo-palatal ж [ʒ], ж [ʒ], щӏ [ɕʼ], ж [ʒ] and щӏ [ɕʼ].[2][3]

  • Western ч [t͡ʃ] became дж [d͡ʒ] in Besleney and ж [ʒ] in Kabardian :
Meaning Besleney Standard Adyghe Kabardian
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
cow джэм d͡ʒam чэм t͡ʃam жэм ʒam
spear бджы bd͡ʒə пчы pt͡ʃə бжы bʒə
goat бджэн bd͡ʒan пчэн pt͡ʃan бжэн bʒan
village джылэ d͡ʒəla чылэ t͡ʃəɮa жылэ ʒəɮa
night джэщ d͡ʒam чэщы t͡ʃaɕə жэщ ʒam
  • Western кӏ [t͡ʃʼ] survived in Besleney and became щӏ [ɕʼ] in Kabardian :
Meaning Besleney Standard Adyghe Kabardian
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
young man кӏалэ t͡ʃʼaːla кӏалэ t͡ʃʼaːɮa щӏалэ ɕʼaːla
new кӏэ t͡ʃʼa кӏэ t͡ʃʼa щӏэ ɕʼa
guest хьакӏэ ħaːt͡ʃʼa хьакӏэ ħaːt͡ʃʼa хьащӏэ ħaːɕʼa
  • Western чъ [ʈʂ] became дж [d͡ʒ] in Besleney and ж [ʒ] in Kabardian :
Meaning Besleney Standard Adyghe Kabardian
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
tree джыг d͡ʒəɣ чъыгы ʈʂəɣə жыг ʒəɣ
to sleep джен d͡ʒajn чъыен ʈʂəjan жейн ʒajn
to run джэн d͡ʒan чъэн ʈʂan жэн ʒan
to run down еджэхын jad͡ʒaxən ечъэхын jaʈʂaxən ежэхын jaʒaxən
goat аджэ aːd͡ʒa ачъэ aːʈʂa ажэ aːʒa
door бджэ bd͡ʒa пчъэ pʈʂa бжэ bʒa

OthersEdit

  • Besleney чъ [t͡ʂ] ↔ ш [ʃ] in other dialects:
Meaning Besleney sub-dialect Standard Kabardian Standard Adyghe
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
horse чъы t͡ʂə шы ʃə шы ʃə
sister чъыпхъу t͡ʂəpχʷ шыпхъу ʃəpχʷ шыпхъу ʃəpχʷ
wedding нысачъэ nəsaːt͡ʂa нысашэ nəsaːʃa нысашэ nəsaːʃa

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit