Bantawa language

  (Redirected from Bantawa)

The Bantawa Language (also referred to as An Yüng, Bantaba, Bantawa Dum, Bantawa Yong, Bantawa Yüng, Bontawa, Kirawa Yüng),[2] is a Kiranti language spoken in the eastern Himalayan hills of eastern Nepal by Bantawa ethnic groups. They use a syllabic alphabet system known as Kirat Khambu (Rai).[3] Among the Kirat Rai people of Eastern Nepal, Sikkim, Darjeeling and Kalimpong in India. Bantawa is the largest language spoken.[4] According to the 2001 National Census, at least 1.63% of the Nepal's total population speaks Bantawa. About 370,000 speak Bantawa Language mostly in eastern hilly regions of Nepal (2001). Although Bantawa is among the more widely used variety of the Bantawa language, it falls in the below-100,000 category of endangered languages.[5] It is experiencing language shift to Nepali, especially in the northern region.[6]

Bantawa
बान्तावा
RegionNepal Sikkim Darjeeling and Kalimpong in India
Native speakers
170,000 (2001 & 2011 censuses)[1]
Sino-Tibetan
Devanagari
Official status
Official language in
 India
Language codes
ISO 639-3bap – inclusive code
Individual code:
wly – Waling
Glottologbant1280
ELPBantawa

Bantawa is spoken in subject-object-verb order, and has no noun classes or genders.[7]

DialectsEdit

Most of the Bantawa clan are now settled in Bhojpur, Dharan, Illam, and Dhankuta. Recent figures show most of them are settled in Dharan. Bantawa is spoken in the following districts of Nepal (Ethnologue).

Dialects are as follows (Ethnologue).

  • Northern Bantawa (Dilpali)
Northern subdialects: Mangpahang, Raipachha, Awaichha, Rungchenbung and Yangma
  • Southern Bantawa (Chewali, Okhreli, Hatuwali, Hangkhim)
Southern and Northern Bantawa, similar, could be united as 'Intermediate Bantawa'.
  • Eastern Bantawa (Dhankuta)
Eastern dialect is the most divergent. It is most closely related to Dungmali language, though also related to Puma language, Sampang language, and Chhintange language.
  • Western Bantawa (Amchoke, Amchauke)
Amchaucke dialects: Sorung, Saharaja, Lulam, and Sukita
  • Wana Bantawa (also called simply Bantawa), spoken by the Bantawa subcaste. The Amchoke dialect is spoken in the Limbu area, especially in Ilam district.

Bantawa is also considered as a superior clan in the Kiranti family. Bantawa is also reportedly in use as a lingua franca among Rai minorities in Himalayan India and Bhutan. Meanwhile, the language is just being introduced in a few schools at the primary level (Year 1- Year 5) [8] using Devanagari script.[9][10]

The extinct Waling language attested from the late 19th century may have been a variety of Bantawa, or a closely related language, if not the Hatuwali dialect the Waling people speak today.

Bantawa LanguageEdit

Wasewa - Bihanko namaste- good morning, Khosewa - dinko namaste good afternoon Khasewa - sanjhko namaste - good evening
Bantawa Nepali English
Sewa आलांङे सेवा नमस्ते Good Morning/Afternoon/Evening,

Aalangne = Dhanyabad - Thanks

Kok काेक भात Food, Rice
Khan खान तरकारी Curry
Manachi मनाचि मानिसहरू People
Diwa दिवा बाजे Grandfather
Dima दिमा बजू Grandmother
papa आपा बुबा Father
mama आमा आमा Mother
Nana नाना दिदी Elder-sister
Nichhama निछामा बहिनी Little-Sister
Dewa देवा ठूलो बुबा Uncle elder to dad
Dema देमा बडी आमा Aunt Elder to Dad/ Dad's elder sister-in-law
Baŋa बाङा काका Uncle younger to Dad
Chhɘna छ़ना काकी Younger uncle wife
buwa बुवा दाजु Elder Brother
Nichha Duwachha निछा दुवाछा भाइ Younger Brother
Nichha O Chhachi निछा ओ छाची भाइ बहिनीका छाेरा छाेरी Brothers children Son/ Daughter
Aachhuwa आछुवा मामा Mother's Brother= Chhuwa
Phepwa फेप्वा पैसा Money= Phekwa, Yaang
Teet तित लुगा Cloths
Chaəˀwa चा:वा पानी Water= Chakwa
Me मि आगाे Fire
thuli पिठाे पिठाे Flour= Thuli
Sampicha साम्पिचा काेदाे Millet
Khawat/Wachhon खावात, वाछाेन जार Locally brew wine
Hengmawa हेङमावा रक्सी Rum/Whisky/Brandy
Saa सा मासु Meat
chhüna छ़ना फुपु Aunt (Father's sister)= chunaa
Diwa/Dima दिवा, दिमा हजुरबुवा, हजुरआमा Grandmother (Father's mother)
Oyatni ओयात्नी यहा Here
Moyatni माेयात्नी त्यहा There
Khadatni खादात्नी कहाँ Where
Demni देम्नी कति How
Monni माेन्नी यति मात्र This much
Chama चामा खानु Eat
Tacha तचा खाने हाे? Eat ?
Koke Tacha? काेक तचा ? खाना खाने हाे ? Do you eat rice?

Words Corrected by: Kiran Bantawa (Mangphang-Lokchwawa)

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Bantawa at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Waling at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ "Bantawa". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
  3. ^ "Bantawa language and Kirat Khambu (Rai) alphabet". www.omniglot.com. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
  4. ^ "Language use among the Bantawa: Homogeneity, education, access, and relative prestige". SIL International. 2013-01-28. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
  5. ^ "Bantawa: observations of a threatened language". robbie.eugraph.com. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
  6. ^ "Bantawa". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
  7. ^ "Bantawa". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
  8. ^ Jadranka Gvozdanovic (2004). Morphosyntactic transparency in Bantawa (.pdf). Himalayan Languages: Past and Present, by Anju Saxena. ISBN 9783110178418. Retrieved 2007-09-12.
  9. ^ "The Bantawa Rai of Nepal". Archived from the original on 2008-03-05. Retrieved 2007-09-12.
  10. ^ "Bantawa, A language of Nepal". Archived from the original on December 1, 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-12.

Further readingEdit

  • Winter, Werner. 2003. A Bantawa Dictionary. Trends in Linguistics - Documentation 20. Mouton de Gruyter: New York.
  • Doornenbal, Marius. 2009. A Grammar of Bantawa. Leiden University PhD Thesis. LOT Dissertation Series: Utrecht.
  • Nishi 西, Yoshio 義郎 (1992b). "バンタワ語" [Bantawa, Bantāwā, Bāntāwā, Bantava; Bontawa, Bontāwā; Buntāwā, Bāntuwā]. In 亀井 Kamei, 孝 Takashi; 河野 Kōno, 六郎 Rokurō; 千野 Chino, 栄一 Eichi (eds.). 三省堂言語学大辞典 The Sanseido Encyclopaedia of Linguistics (in Japanese). 3. Tokyo: 三省堂 Sanseido Press. pp. 380a–391a. ISBN 4385152179.

External linksEdit