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Bangalore Development Authority

The Bangalore Development Authority (BDA) of Bangalore, India, is a governmental organization (referred to within India as a parastatal entity) and the principal planning authority for Bangalore. Its function, under the Karnataka Town and Country Planning Act of 1961 (KTCPA), is as a regulatory body required "to prepare in the prescribed manner a Comprehensive Development Plan" (CDP) for the Bangalore metropolitan region.[2] It also oversees planning and development of infrastructure, provision of development-related sites and services, the housing needs of underprivileged citizens in Bangalore and is currently the city's largest land developer.[3] No other authority or person may undertake development within the Bangalore Metropolitan Region without the permission of the BDA.[4]

Bangalore Development Authority
Bangalore Development Authority logo.jpeg
Logo of the BDA
BDA Shopping Complex in Koramangala.JPG
A shopping complex built by the BDA on the Inner Ring Road, Koramangala
Planning Authority overview
Formed 6 January 1976 (1976-01-06)
Superseding agency
  • City Improvement Trust Board
Jurisdiction Government of Karnataka
Headquarters Bangalore
Employees 486[1]
Annual budget Rs. 5067.65 crore (2012)
Minister responsible
Planning Authority executive
  • Rakesh Singh, Commissioner
Website bdabangalore.org

Contents

BackgroundEdit

BDA was created on 6 January 1976 under the Bangalore Development Authority Act 1976[5] superseding the earlier civic authority known as the City Improvement Trust Board (CITB), but remaining nearly identical in function.[6] The BDA is a largely unelected local authority (2 out of 23 members are elected BBMP corporators) with most of its members accountable to, and directly appointed by the state government. This creates issues with local representation, particularly since the passage of the Constitution (74th) Amendment Act, 1992 mandating the devolution of planning powers to local, elected authorities.

Despite being the principle planning authority, up to 90% of new residential layouts on the Bangalore periphery do not have formal approval from the BDA.[7] Over time, these layouts tend to be regularized by successive state governments, however they exhibit all of the issues associated with ad hoc residential development including irregular road layouts, boundary encroachments and lack of provision for essential services and infrastructure.

Corruption has always been an issue within the BDA, with one particularly notorious scandal being the illegal sale of up to 200 sites in 1995 by corrupt BDA officials[8]. In the 1990s the BDA came under sustained criticism including the Public Affairs Center's 1993 report cards on BDA performance[9]; the CUMB Report of 1997 which examined the role and function of the BDA and concluded that the organization had outlived its mandate, was failing as a development authority and should be disbanded;[10] and a 1999 report[11] by the World Bank which labelled it one of the most corrupt and inefficient institutions in the city.[12] The same report also reported on the findings of a citizen survey which found 65% of Bangaloreans dissatisfied with their experience dealing with the BDA, and just 1% satisfied—the lowest of any civic agency in the city. It was also receiving the highest share of bribes (33%) in exchange for expediting service outcomes.

The BDA is credited with responding to these findings with some reforms in operational management and asset monitoring and accounting practices leading to a substantial increase in residential layout development and allocation.[13]

In 2008 the Kasturirangan Report reaffirmed that as both developer and land regulator, the BDA has neglected its regulatory role, but gained some additional credibility through the successful delivery of major infrastructure projects[10] including the Outer Ring Road, and various flyovers and underpasses throughout the city. The report recommended land regulation responsibilities be handed over to other municipal bodies such as the BBMP with the BDA focusing on its function as a development body.

AchievementsEdit

CriticismEdit

  • The encroachment and development upon water bodies and tanks essential for the city's drainage system.[15]
  • Failure to provide basic amenities (power, water, sewerage, drainage) to residential layouts whilst embarking on still further projects.[16][17]
  • Failure to provide for the rehabilitation of villagers displaced by new layout projects.[18]
  • Failure to deliver on planned projects and promised infrastructure.[19][20]
  • Despite the 73rd and 74th amendments to the Indian Constitution devolving power to Panchayats and local urban bodies, the BDA is not similarly responsive through an electoral process to local constituencies.[21]
  • The influence of money and vested interests, the so-called "land mafia",[22] in the violation of regulations and land use controls and the development of prime real estate locations.[23][24]
  • Service outcomes decreasing over time despite significant growth in revenues (accounting for population and inflation).[25]

Layouts developed by BDAEdit

Jayanagar, Koramangla, J P Nagar, Anjanpura, Kumaraswamy Layout, Banashankari, Indranagar, Domlur, Kasturi Nagar, Sadashivnagar, RMV Extension, HBR Layout, HRBR Layout, HSR Layout, BTM Layout, Vishwesharaiah Layout, 37/6 Arkavathy Layout, Nagarbhavi BDA Layout, BSK5TH Stage, BSK 6th Stage.West of chord road layout, Nadaprabhu kempegowda layout

Comprehensive Development Plans (CDPs)Edit

  • 1984 1st Development Plan for 1985: Aimed at decongesting the central city area and encourage development around the city periphery.
  • 1995 2nd Development Plan [26]
  • Revised Master Plan 2007
  • Master Plan 2015[27] approved in 2005.
  • Revised Master Plan 2031[28]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Organization". Bengaluru Development Authority. 
  2. ^ Stallmeyer, John (2010). Building Bangalore: Architecture and urban transformation in India’s Silicon Valley. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780203842195. 
  3. ^ "Bangalore an IT city? Check with Bangalore Development Authority". DNA. 15 February 2013. 
  4. ^ Lall, Somik V (2009). Urban Land Markets: Improving Land Management for Successful Urbanization. Springer. p. 316. ISBN 9781402088629. 
  5. ^ "Assembly re-adopts Bill on BDA Act". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 19 July 2006. 
  6. ^ Stallmeyer, John (2010). "Electronics City". Building Bangalore: Architecture and urban transformation in India’s Silicon Valley. Routledge. ISBN 1136903976. 
  7. ^ Anjaria, Jonathan (2013). Urban Navigations: Politics, Space and the City in South Asia. New Delhi: Routledge. p. 168. ISBN 1136197427. 
  8. ^ The Times of India. 8 May 1995.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  9. ^ Paul, Samuel (2000). Benchmarking Urban Services: The Second Report Card from Bangalore. Public Affairs Centre. 
  10. ^ a b Report of the Expert Committee on Governance in the Bangalore Metropolitan Region and Bruhat Bangalore Mahanagara Palike. Bangalore: Government of Karnataka. March 2008. 
  11. ^ Paul, Samuel (November 1999). "Making Voice Work: The Report Card on Bangalore's Public Services" (PDF). World Bank. doi:10.1596/1813-9450-1921. 
  12. ^ Carney, Scott (20 October 2008). "The Godfather of Bangalore". Wired. 
  13. ^ Rajak, Robin (2009). "Does Public Ownership and Management of Land Matter for Land Market Outcomes?". In Lall, Somik. Urban Land Markets: Improving Land Management for Successful Urbanization. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 320. ISBN 1402088620. 
  14. ^ http://www.theretailtimes.co.in/April-e-paper.pdf
  15. ^ Srinivas, Smriti (2004). "Models of the Garden City". Landscapes Of Urban Memory. Orient Blackswan. ISBN 9788125022541. 
  16. ^ "'Bangalore Development Authority needs major surgery'". DNA. 7 July 2012. 
  17. ^ D'Souza, Odeal (1 February 2011). "Bangalore Development Authority acting like real estate agency: Karnataka high court". DNA. 
  18. ^ D'Souza, Odeal (16 February 2011). "Bangalore Development Authority gets another sound rap from Karnataka high court". DNA. 
  19. ^ Raghunandan, P (25 April 2012). "BDA's budget soars, progress dwindles". Deccan Herald. 
  20. ^ Chaturvedi, Atul (8 February 2013). "Like BBMP, BDA too is a pauper". Bangalore Mirror. 
  21. ^ Stallmeyer, John (2010). Building Bangalore: Architecture and urban transformation in India’s Silicon Valley. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780203842195. 
  22. ^ Carney, Scott (20 October 2008). "The Godfather of Bangalore". Wired. 
  23. ^ Stallmeyer, John (2010). Building Bangalore: Architecture and urban transformation in India’s Silicon Valley. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780203842195. 
  24. ^ "BDA under heavy fire for its shady deals". DNA. 28 July 2012. 
  25. ^ Sridhar, Kala Seetharam (2010). State of Urban Services in India's Cities: Spending and Financing. Public Affairs Centre. ISBN 9780198065388. 
  26. ^ http://www.bdabangalore.org/developmentplan.html
  27. ^ http://www.bdabangalore.org/Masterplan2015.html
  28. ^ http://www.bdabangalore.org/townplanning.html#TPM-RMP