Balanus glandula

Balanus glandula (North American Acorn Barnacle, Common Acorn Barnacle) is one of the most common barnacle species on the Pacific coast of North America, distributed from the U.S. state of Alaska to Bahía de San Quintín near San Quintín, Baja California.[1] They are commonly found in the upper intertidal zone on mussels, rocks and pier pilings.[1] They can obtain oxygen from both water and air.[2]

Balanus glandula
Balanus glandula01.jpg
Balanus glandula with Chthamalus fissus
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Crustacea
Class: Thecostraca
Subclass: Cirripedia
Order: Balanomorpha
Family: Balanidae
Genus: Balanus
B. glandula
Binomial name
Balanus glandula
Darwin, 1854

This acorn barnacle is a moderate-sized one with a diameter of up to 22 mm (0.9 in).[1] The shell is formed by overlapping plates and has a calcareous basis. It has more the shape of a cylinder than the shape of a cone. The white operculum has heavily ridged walls.[1] It can live up to ten years.[1]

It has been intensely studied in recent years as a model species for linking physical oceanography and population genetics (or phylogeography) surveys.[3] This species was introduced to the shores of Argentina in the 1960s, and has become an invasive species, displacing other barnacles and mussels.[4][5]


  1. ^ a b c d e Robert Hugh Morris, Donald Putnam Abbott & Eugene Clinton Haderlie (1980). "Balanus glandula". Intertidal Invertebrates of California. Stanford: Stanford University Press. pp. 520–521. ISBN 978-0-8047-1045-9.
  2. ^ Rosario Beach Marine Laboratory. "Balanus glandula — Overview". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 2018-08-15.
  3. ^ Erik Sotka; John Wares; Jack Barth; Rick Grosberg; Steve Palumbi (2004). "Strong genetic clines and geographical variation in gene flow in the rocky intertidal barnacle Balanus glandula". Molecular Ecology. 13 (8): 2143–2156. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294x.2004.02225.x. PMID 15245390. S2CID 18401309.
  4. ^ Zaixso, H.E., Boraso de Zaixso, A.L., Pastor de Ward, C.T., Lizarralde, Z., Dadón, J.R. and Galván, D. 2015. Capítulo 2. El bentos costero patagónico. In: Zaixso, H.E., A.L. Boraso de Zaixso, C.T. Pastor de Ward, Z. Lizarralde, J.R. Dadón and D. Galván (Eds.), La Zona Costera Patagónica Argentina. Volumen II. Comunidades Biológicas y Geología, Editorial Universitaria de la Patagonia, Comodoro Rivadavia, pp. 43–152.
  5. ^ Evangelina Schwindt (2007). "The invasion of the acorn barnacle Balanus glandula in the south-western Atlantic 40 years later". Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 87 (5): 1219–1225. doi:10.1017/S0025315407056895.