Bakht-un-Nissa Begum

Bakht-un-Nissa Begum[a] (Persian: بخت النسا بیگم‎; c. 1547 - 2 June 1608), meaning "Fortunate among Women", was a Mughal princess, the daughter of Mughal emperor Humayun.

Bakht-un-Nissa Begum
Bornc. 1547
Badakhshan
Died2 June 1608 (aged 60–61)
Akbarabad (present day Agra), Mughal Empire
SpouseShah Abdul Ma'ali
Khawaja Hasan Naqshbandi
IssueMirza Badi-uz-Zaman
Mirza Wali
HouseTimurid
FatherHumayun
MotherMah Chuchak Begum

BirthEdit

Bakht-un-Nissa Begum was born in 1547 in Badakhshan. Her mother was Mah Chuchak Begum. On the night of her birth Humayun had a dream, and it occurred to him that she be named 'Bakht-un-Nissa'. Her siblings included, Mirza Muhammad Hakim, Farrukh Fal Mirza, Sakina Banu Begum, and Amina Banu Begum.[1]

MarriagesEdit

Shah Abdul Ma'aliEdit

During Mah Chuchak Begum's rule at Kabul, Shah Abdul Ma'ali, who belonged to the family of the great Sayyids of Termez, who had escaped from the prison at Lahore, arrived at Kabul and approached her for refuge. The Begum welcomed him, was generous to him and gave her daughter Bakht-un-Nissa Begum in marriage with him.[2][3] However, soon Abdul Ma'ali grew tired of the dominating and interfering ways of Mah Chuchak Begum. He wanted Kabul for himself. So he killed the Begum 1564.[4] Hakim Mirza was luckily rescued by Sulaiman Mirza of Badakshan, who defeated and killed Abdul Ma'ali and helped Mirza Hakim to keep his hold over Kabul.[5]

Khawaja HasanEdit

After Abdul Ma'ali's death, Hakim Mirza married her to Khawaja Hasan Naqshbandi of Badakshan.[6][3] With Hasan, she had two sons, Mirza Badi-uz-Zaman and Mirza Wali. After Hakim Mirza's death, Mirza Badi-uz-Zaman fled to Transoxania, where he died in exile. The begum, and her son Mirza Wali joined the court, and Akbar did much to please her.[7] In 1619, Jahangir married Mirza Wali to Bulaqi Begum, the daughter of Prince Daniyal Mirza, the son of Akbar.[8]

Governorship of KabulEdit

Her brother, Hakim Mirza was the governor of Kabul. In 1581, he rebelled in Kabul, and advanced to Lahore invading Punjab on the way. Here he was checked by Man Singh, who was the governor of Punjab at that time. Akbar declared war on him and himself went to Kabul. Mirza Hakim went to the hills. Akbar pardoned him, but the governorship of Kabul was now given to Bakht-un-Nissa Begum. Akbar also promised not to show any kindness to Hakim if he misbehaved in future. After Akbar's return from Kabul, Hakim got his old position, but all the official orders were issued in Bakht-un-Nissa's name.[9][10][11]

DeathEdit

Bakht-un-Nissa Begum died of consumption and hectic fever on 1 June 1608.[12]

AnnotationsEdit

  1. ^ She is also called by two other names, Najib-un-Nissa, and Fakhr-un-Nissa.[13][14]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Begum, Gulbadan (1902). The History of Humayun (Humayun-Nama). Royal Asiatic Society. pp. 185–6.
  2. ^ Mukherjee, Soma (2001). Royal Mughal Ladies and Their Contributions. Gyan Books. p. 126. ISBN 978-8-121-20760-7.
  3. ^ a b Mukhia, Harbans (April 15, 2018). The Mughals of India. John Wiley & Sons. p. 142. ISBN 978-0-470-75815-1.
  4. ^ Annemarie Schimmel (2004). The Empire of the Great Mughals: History, Art and Culture. Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-861-89185-3.
  5. ^ Beveridge, Henry (1907). Akbarnama of Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak - Volume II. Asiatic Society, Calcutta. pp. 320–21.
  6. ^ Beveridge, Henry (1907). Akbarnama of Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak - Volume II. Asiatic Society, Calcutta. p. 364.
  7. ^ Jahangir, Emperor; Thackston, Wheeler McIntosh (1999). The Jahangirnama : memoirs of Jahangir, Emperor of India. Washington, D. C.: Freer Gallery of Art, Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 303–4.
  8. ^ The Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. Indin History Congress. 2004. p. 599.
  9. ^ Greer, Margaret R.; Mignolo, Wapter D.; Quilligan, Maureen (September 15, 2008). Rereading the Black Legend: The Discourses of Religious and Racial Difference in the Renaissance Empires. University of Chicago Press. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-226-30724-4.
  10. ^ Walthall, Anne (2008). Servants of the Dynasty: Palace Women in World History. University of California Press. p. 107. ISBN 978-0-520-25444-2.
  11. ^ Iftikhar, Rukhsana (June 6, 2016). Indian Feminism: Class, Gender & Identity in Medieval Ages. Notion Press. ISBN 978-9-386-07373-0.
  12. ^ Jahangir, Emperor; Rogers, Alexander; Beveridge, Henry (1909). The Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri; or, Memoirs of Jahangir. Translated by Alexander Rogers. Edited by Henry Beveridge. London Royal Asiatic Society. pp. 144.
  13. ^ Lal, Ruby (September 22, 2005). Domesticity and Power in the Early Mughal India. Cambridge University Press. p. 207. ISBN 978-0-521-85022-3.
  14. ^ Monserrate (Padre) (1992). The Commentary of Father Monserrate, S.J. on His Journey to the Court of Akbar. Asian Educational Services. pp. 135 n. 207. ISBN 978-8-120-60807-8.