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Bagua diagram from Zhao Huiqian's (趙撝謙) Liushu benyi (六書本義, 1370s).

The Bagua or Pa Kua are eight trigrams used in Taoist cosmology to represent the fundamental principles of reality, seen as a range of eight interrelated concepts. Each consists of three lines, each line either "broken" or "unbroken," respectively representing yin or yang. Due to their tripartite structure, they are often referred to as "trigrams" in English.

Bagua
Chinese name
Chinese 八卦
Literal meaning eight symbols
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese Bát quái
Korean name
Hangul 팔괘
Hanja 八卦

In the history recording of China, Wuxing theory exist not before than Warring States period , Taiji only exist after the era of Western Han. In the Pre-Confucian era, there was four element theory and 大恒 instead of 太極. And this also shown that the original Taoist philosopy recorded at Yellow River Map and Nine Halls Diagram were the sources of Book of Revelation which written by John of Patmos by parallel comparsion. By the original Taoist philosophy, eight trigrams already recognized as a RGB color model. Fuxi Bagua and King Wen Bagua were rejected because the violation of the rule of eight trigrams.

The trigrams are related to Taiji philosophy, Taijiquan and the Wu Xing, or "five elements".[1] The relationships between the trigrams are represented in two arrangements, the Primordial (先天八卦), "Earlier Heaven"[2] or "Fu Xi" bagua (伏羲八卦), and the Manifested (後天八卦), "Later Heaven,"[2] or "King Wen" bagua. The trigrams have correspondences in astronomy, astrology, geography, geomancy, anatomy, the family, and elsewhere.[3][4]

The ancient Chinese classic, I Ching (Pinyin: Yi Jing), consists of the 64 pairwise permutations of trigrams, referred to as "hexagrams", along with commentary on each one.

Contents

TrigramsEdit

八卦 Bāguà—The eight trigrams
Trigram Lines 乾 Qián
兌 Duì
離 Lí
震 Zhèn
巽 Xùn
坎 Kǎn
艮 Gèn
坤 Kūn
Nature Heaven/Sky Lake/Marsh Fire Thunder Wind Water Mountain Earth
Element and Planet Metal / Neptune Metal / Venus Fire / Mars Wood / Jupiter Wood / Pluto Water / Mercury Earth / Uranus Earth / Saturn
Chinese Name 天 Tiān 澤 Zé 火 Huǒ 雷 Léi 風Fēng 水 Shuǐ 山 Shān 地 Dì
Ba Xian Han Xiang Zi Zhuang Li Quan Lü Dongbin Cao Guo Jiu He Xian Gu Li Tie Guai Zhang Guolao Lan Cai He
Personality Philosophy Holy Merrymaker Leadership Emperor Tao Yin Pilgrim Warrior Hero Emotion
Ba Mai[5] Du Mai Yin Wei Mai Chong Mai Yang Wei Mai Yin Qiao Mai Dai Mai Yang Qiao Mai Ren Mai
Open Point

Channel

Hou Xi

Xiao Chang

Nei Guan

Xin Bao

Gong Sun

Pi

Wai Guan

San Jiao

Zhao Hai

Shen

Zu Lin Qi

Dan

Shen Men

Pang Guang

Lie Que

Fei

Baduanjin 两手托天理三焦 Liangshou tuo tian li sanjiao 左右开弓似射雕 Zuoyou kai gong si she diao 調理脾胃順單舉 Tiaoli piwei xu dan ju 攒拳怒目增氣力 Zan quan numu zeng qili 兩手攀足固腎腰 Liangshou pan zu gu shen yao 搖頭摆尾去心火 Yao tou bai wei qu xinhuo 五勞七傷向后瞧 Wulaoqishang xianghou qiao 背后七顛百病消 Beihou cidian baibing xiao
Hindu Chakra Related

TCM Acu.

Sahasrara

Bai Hui

Ajna

Yin Dang

Anahata

Shan Zhong

Vishuddha

Da Zhui

Svadhishthana

Shen Que

Manipura

Ling Tai (T7)

Muladhara

Ming Men

Bindu

Hui Yin

Relation to other principlesEdit

 
Derivation of the bagua

There are two possible sources of bagua. The first is from traditional Yin and Yang philosophy. This is explained by Fuxi in the following way:

無極生有極、有極是太極、
太極生兩儀、即陰陽;
兩儀生四象: 即少陰、太陰、少陽、太陽、
四象演八卦、八八六十四卦

Wújí shēng yǒu jí, yǒu jí shì tàijí
Tàijí shēng liǎngyí jí yīnyáng
Liǎngyí shēng sìxiàng: jí shǎo yīn, tàiyīn, shǎo yáng, tàiyang
Sìxiàng yǎn bāguà bābāliù shísì guà

The Limitless (無極; wuji) produces the delimited (有極; youji), and this demarcation is equivalent to the Absolute (太極; taiji).
The Taiji (the two opposing forces in embryonic form) produces two forms, named yin-yang (陰陽) which are called Liangyi (the manifested opposing forces).
These two forms produce four phenomena: named lesser yin (少陰, shaoyin), greater yin (太陰; taiyin, which also refers to the Moon), lesser yang (少陽, shaoyang), and greater yang (太陽; taiyang, which also refers to the Sun).
The four phenomena (四象; Sìxiàng) act on the eight trigrams (八卦; Bagua).
Eight 'eights' results in sixty-four hexagrams.

Another possible source of bagua is the following, attributed to King Wen of Zhou Dynasty: "When the world began, there was heaven and earth. Heaven mated with the earth and gave birth to everything in the world. Heaven is Qian-gua, and the Earth is Kun-gua. The remaining six guas are their sons and daughters".

The trigrams are related to the five elements of Wu Xing, used by Feng Shui practitioners and in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Those five elements are Water, Wood, Fire, Earth and Metal. The Water (Kan) and Fire (Li) trigrams correspond directly with the Water and Fire elements. The element of Earth corresponds with both the trigrams of Earth (Kun) and Mountain (Gen). The element of Wood corresponds with the trigrams of Wind (Xun) (as a gentle but inexorable force that can erode and penetrate stone) and Thunder (Zhen). The element of Metal corresponds with the trigrams of Heaven (Qian) and Lake (Dui).

There are eight possible combinations to render the various trigrams (八卦 bāguà):

Trigram Figure possible Binary Value Name Translation: Wilhelm[6] Image in Nature (pp.l-li) Direction (p. 269) Family Relationship (p. 274) Body Part (p. 274) Attribute (p. 273) Stage/ State (pp.l-li) Animal (p. 273)
1 111
qián
the Creative, Force heaven, sky
northwest father head strong creative
horse
2 110
duì
the Joyous, Open lake, marsh
west third daughter mouth pleasure tranquil (complete devotion)
sheep, goat
3 101
the Clinging, Radiance fire
south second daughter eye light-giving, dependence clinging, clarity, adaptable
pheasant
4 100
zhèn
the Arousing, Shake thunder
east first son foot inciting movement initiative
dragon
5 011
xùn
the Gentle, Ground wind
southeast first daughter thigh penetrating gentle entrance
fowl
6 010
kǎn
the Abysmal, Gorge water
north second son ear dangerous in-motion
pig
7 001
gèn
Keeping Still, Bound mountain
northeast third son hand resting, stand-still completion
wolf, dog
8 000
kūn
the Receptive, Field earth
southwest mother (consort) belly devoted, yielding receptive
cow

Hexagram lookup tableEdit

Upper →
Lower ↓
乾 Qián
 
Heaven
坤 Kūn
 
Earth
震 Zhèn
 
Thunder
坎 Kǎn
 
Water
艮 Gèn
 
Mountain
巽 Xùn
 
Wind
離 Lí
 
Flame
兌 Duì
 
Lake
乾 Qián
 
Heaven
01
 
 
Force
11
 
 
Pervading
34
 
 
Great Invigorating
05
 
 
Attending

26
 
 
Great
Accumulating

09
 
 
Small
Harvest

14
 
 
Great
Possessing
43
 
 
Displacement
坤 Kūn
 
Earth
12
 
 
Obstruction
02
 
 
Field
16
 
 
Providing-For
08
 
 
Grouping
23
 
 
Stripping
20
 
 
Viewing
35
 
 
Prospering
45
 
 
Clustering
震 Zhèn
 
Thunder
25
 
 
Innocence
24
 
 
Returning
51
 
 
Shake
03
 
 
Sprouting
27
 
 
Swallowing
42
 
 
Augmenting
21
 
 
Gnawing Bite
17
 
 
Following
坎 Kǎn
 
Water
06
 
 
Arguing
07
 
 
Leading
40
 
 
Deliverance
29
 
 
Gorge
04
 
 
Enveloping
59
 
 
Dispersing
64
 
 
Before Completion
47
 
 
Confining
艮 Gèn
 
Mountain
33
 
 
Retiring
15
 
 
Humbling
62
 
 
Small Exceeding
39
 
 
Limping
52
 
 
Bound
53
 
 
Infiltrating
56
 
 
Sojourning
31
 
 
Conjoining
巽 Xùn
 
Wind
44
 
 
Coupling
46
 
 
Ascending
32
 
 
Persevering
48
 
 
Welling
18
 
 
Correcting
57
 
 
Ground
50
 
 
Holding
28
 
 
Great Exceeding
離 Lí
 
Flame
13
 
 
Concording
People
36
 
 
Intelligence
Hidden
55
 
 
Abounding
63
 
 
Already
Fording
22
 
 
Adorning
37
 
 
Dwelling
People
30
 
 
Radiance
49
 
 
Skinning
兌 Duì
 
Lake
10
 
 
Treading
19
 
 
Nearing
54
 
 
Converting the Maiden
60
 
 
Articulating
41
 
 
Diminishing
61
 
 
Inner Truth
38
 
 
Polarising
58
 
 
Open

Fu Xi "Earlier Heaven"Edit

 
Fuxi "Earlier Heaven" bagua arrangement
卦名
Name
自然
Nature
季节
Season
性情
Personality
家族
Family
方位
Direction
意義
Meaning
 Qián 天 Sky (Heaven) Summer Creative 父 Father 南 South Expansive energy, the sky. For further information, see tiān.
 Xùn 風 Wind Summer Gentle 長女 Eldest Daughter 西南 Southwest Gentle penetration, flexibility.
 Kǎn 水 Water Autumn Abysmal 中男 Middle Son 西 West Danger, rapid rivers, the abyss, the moon.
 Gèn 山 Mountain Autumn Still 少男 Youngest Son 西北 Northwest Stillness, immovability.
 Kūn 地 Earth Winter Receptive 母 Mother 北 North Receptive energy, that which yields. For further information, see .
 Zhèn 雷 Thunder Winter Arousing 長男 Eldest Son 東北 Northeast Excitation, revolution, division.
 Lí 火 Fire Spring Clinging 中女 Middle Daughter 東 East Rapid movement, radiance, the sun.
 Duì 澤 Lake Spring Joyous 少女 Youngest Daughter 東南 Southeast Joy, satisfaction, stagnation.

King Wen "Later Heaven"Edit

 
King Wen "Later Heaven" bagua arrangement
卦名
Name
自然
Nature
季节
Season
性情
Personality
家族
Family
方位
Direction
意義
Meaning
 Li 火 Fire Summer Clinging 中女 Middle Daughter 南 South Rapid movement, radiance, the sun.
 Kun 地 Earth Summer Receptive 母 Mother 西南 Southwest Receptive energy, that which yields.
 Dui 澤 Lake Autumn Joyous 少女 Youngest Daughter 西 West Joy, satisfaction, stagnation.
 Qian 天 Heaven Autumn Creative 父 Father 西北 Northwest Expansive energy, the sky.
 Kan 水 Water Winter Abysmal 中男 Middle Son 北 North Danger, rapid rivers, the abyss, the moon.
 Gen 山 Mountain Winter Still 少男 Youngest Son 東北 Northeast Stillness, immovability.
 Zhen 雷 Thunder Spring Arousing 長男 Eldest Son 東 East Excitation, revolution, division.
 Xun 風 Wind Spring Gentle 長女 Eldest Daughter 東南 Southeast Gentle penetration, flexibility.

Yellow River MapEdit

卦名
Name
節氣
Solar Term
屬性
Elements
器官
Organs
方位
Direction
顏色
Color
味道
Taste
星相
Constellations
體液
Humorae
二進制
Binary
Winter Solstice 冬至 陽火(Fire) 腎 Kidneys 北 North 丹 Red 鹹 Salty 虛(Aquarius) 血 Blood 011
Start of Winter 立冬 陰火(Fire) 腸 Intestines 西北 North West 洋紅 Magenta 鹹 Salty 斗(Sagittarius) 血 Blood 010
Autumn Equinox 秋分 陰水(Water) 肝 Liver 西 West 藍 Blue 苦 Bitter 房(Scorpio) 津 Body Liquid 110
Start of Autumn 立秋 陽水(Water) 膽 Gallbladder 西南 South West 黑 Black 苦 Bitter 角(Virgo) 津 Body Liquid 111
Summer Solstice 夏至 陰木(Wood) 肺 Lungs 南 South 青 Cyan 辛 Spicy 星(Leo) 氣 Air 100
Start of Summer 立夏 陽木(Wood) 心 Heart 東南 South East 綠 Green 辛 Spicy 井(Gemini) 氣 Air 101
Spring Equinox 春分 陽金(Metal) 脾 Spleen 東 East 黃 Yellow 酸 Sour 昴(Taurus) 精 Essence 001
Start of Spring 立春 陰金(Metal) 胃 Stomach 東北 North East 白 White 酸 Sour 奎(Pisces) 精 Essence 000

生(Generative/Counter-clockwise),剋(Destructive/Clockwise)

火生水,水生木,木生金,金生火

火剋金,金剋木,木剋水,水剋火

Nine Halls DiagramEdit

卦名
Name
節氣
Solar Term
屬性
Elements
家族
Family
方位
Direction
顏色
Color
脈搏
Pulse
二進制
Binary
四馬與治療法
Four horses &Therapy
Winter Solstice 冬至 太陽陽水(Water) 父 Father 北 North 黑 Black 沉 Deep 111 11太陽,寒者熱之00
Start of Winter 立冬 太陽陰水(Water) 長女 Eldest Daughter 西北 North West 藍 Blue 沉 Deep 110 11太陽,寒者熱之00
Autumn Equinox 秋分 少陽陽木(Wood) 中男 Middle Son 西 West 綠 Green 細 Small 101 10少陽,涼者溫之01
Start of Autumn 立秋 少陽陰木(Wood) 少女 Youngest Daughter 西南 South West 青 Cyan 細 Small 100 10少陽,涼者溫之01
Summer Solstice 夏至 太陰陰金(Metal) 母 Mother 南 South 白 White 浮 Float 000 00太陰,熱者寒之11
Start of Summer 立夏 太陰陽金(Metal) 長男 Eldest Son 東南 South East 黃 Yellow 浮 Float 001 00太陰,熱者寒之11
Spring Equinox 春分 少陰陰火(Fire) 中女 Middle Daughter 東 East 洋紅 Magenta 大 Big 010 01少陰,溫者涼之10
Start of Spring 立春 少陰陽火(Fire) 少男 Youngest Son 東北 North East 丹 Red 大 Big 011 01少陰,溫者涼之10

生(Generative/Counter-clockwise),剋(Destructive/Clockwise)

水生木,木生金,金生火,火生水

水剋火,火剋金,金剋木,木剋水

Bagua used in Feng ShuiEdit

The Bagua is an essential tool in the majority of Feng Shui schools. The Bagua used in Feng shui can appear in two different versions: the Earlier Heaven Bagua, used for burial sites, and the Later Heaven Bagua, used for the residences.

Xiantian BaguaEdit

In Xiantian Bagua, also known as Fu Xi Bagua or Earlier Heaven Bagua, the Heaven is in the higher part and the Earth is in the lower part. The trigram Qian (Heaven) is at the top, the trigram Kun (Earth) is at the bottom (in the past, the South was located at the top in Chinese maps). The trigram Li (Fire) is located on the left and opposite to it is the trigram Kan (Water). Zhen (Thunder) and Xun (Wind) form another pair, while being one opposite the other, the first on the bottom left next to Li while the second is next to Qian on the top right of the Bagua. Gen (Mountain) and Dui (Lake) form the last pair, one opposite the other, both in balance and harmony. The adjustment of the trigrams is symmetrical by forming exact contrary pairs. They symbolize the opposite forces of Yin and Yang and represent an ideal state, when everything is in balance.

Houtian BaguaEdit

The sequence of the trigrams in Houtian Bagua, also known as the Bagua of King Wen or Later Heaven Bagua, describes the patterns of the environmental changes. Kan is placed downwards and Li at the top, Zhen in the East and Dui in the West. Contrary to the Earlier Heaven Bagua, this one is a dynamic Bagua where energies and the aspects of each trigram flow towards the following. It is the sequence used by the Luo Pan compass which is used in Feng Shui to analyze the movement of the Qi that affects us.

Bagua of the eight aspirationsEdit

Feng shui was made very popular in the Occident thanks to the Bagua of the eight aspirations. Each trigram corresponds to an aspect of life which, in its turn, corresponds to one of the cardinal directions. Applying feng shui using the Bagua of the eight aspirations made it possible to simplify feng shui and to bring it within the reach of everyone. The Masters of traditional feng shui call it Neo Feng Shui, for its simplicity, because it does not take into account the forms of the landscape or the temporal influence or the annual cycles. The Bagua of the eight aspirations is divided into two branches: the first, which uses the compass and cardinal directions, and the second, which uses the Bagua by using the main door. It is clear that, not taking into account the cardinal directions, the second is even more simplified.

Bagua mapEdit

A bagua map is a tool used in modern forms of feng shui to map a room or location and see how the different sections correspond to different aspects in one's life. These sections are believed to relate to every area or aspect of life and are divided into such categories as: fame, relationships/marriage, children/creativity, helpful people/travel, career, inner knowledge, family/ancestors/health, and wealth/blessings.

In this system, the map is intended to be used over the land, one's home, office or desk to find areas lacking good chi, and to show where there are negative or missing spaces that may need rectifying or enhancing in life or the environment.

For example, if the bagua grid is placed over the entire house plan and it shows the toilet, bathroom, laundry, or kitchen in the wealth/blessings area it would be considered that the money coming into that particular environment would disappear very fast, as if to be 'going down the drain.'

 
A Tibetan "Mystic Tablet" containing the Eight Trigrams on top of a large tortoise (presumably, alluding to the animal that presented them to Fu Xi), along with the 12 signs of Chinese zodiac, and a smaller tortoise carrying the Lo Shu Square on its shell

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ CHEN, Xin (tr. Alex Golstein). The Illustrated Canon of Chen Family Taijiquan, INBI Matrix Pty Ltd, 2007. page 11. (accessed on Scribd.com, December 14, 2009.)
  2. ^ a b Wilhelm, Richard (1950). The I Ching or Book of Changes. translated by Cary F. Baynes, forward by C. G. Jung, preface to 3rd ed. by Hellmut Wilhelm (1967). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. pp. 266, 269. ISBN 069109750X. 
  3. ^ TSUEI, Wei. Roots of Chinese culture and medicine Chinese Culture Books Co., 1989.
  4. ^ ZONG, Xiao-Fan and Liscum, Gary. Chinese Medical Palmistry: Your Health in Your Hand, Blue Poppy Press, 1999.
  5. ^ https://theory.yinyanghouse.com/acupuncturepoints/theory_ev
  6. ^ Wilhelm, R. & Baynes, C., (1967): "The I Ching or Book of Changes", With foreword by Carl Jung, Introduction, Bollingen Series XIX, Princeton University Press, (1st ed. 1950)

External linksEdit