Augment (Indo-European)

The augment is a prefix used in certain Indo-European languages (Indo-Iranian, Greek, Armenian and Phrygian) to indicate past time. The augment is of rather late origin in Proto-Indo-European, and in the oldest daughter languages such as Vedic Sanskrit and early Greek, it is used optionally. The same verb forms when used without the augment carry an injunctive sense.[1][2][3]

The augment originally appears to have been a separate word, with the potential meaning of 'there, then', which in time got fused to the verb. The augment is *é- in PIE (é- in Greek, á- in Sanskrit) and always bears the accent.[1][2]

GreekEdit

The predominant scholarly view on the prehistory of the augment is that it was originally a separate particle, although dissenting opinions have occasionally been voiced.[4]

Homeric GreekEdit

In Homer, past-tense (aorist or imperfect) verbs appeared both with and without an augment.

  • ὣς φάτο — ὣς ἔφατο
    hṑs pháto — hṑs éphato
    "so he/she said"
  • ἦμος δ᾿ ἠριγένεια φάνη ῥοδοδάκτυλος Ἠώς,
    êmos d' ērigéneia phánē rhododáktulos Ēṓs,
    "And when rose-fingered Dawn appeared, early-born,"

Ancient GreekEdit

In Ancient Greek, the verb λέγω légo "I say" has the aorist ἔλεξα élexa "I said." The initial ε e is the augment. When it comes before a consonant, it is called the "syllabic augment" because it adds a syllable. Sometimes the syllabic augment appears before a vowel because the initial consonant of the verbal root (usually digamma) was lost:[5]

  • *έ-ϝιδον *é-widon → (loss of digamma) *ἔιδον *éidon → (synaeresis) εἶδον eîdon

When the augment is added before a vowel, the augment and the vowel are contracted and the vowel becomes long: ἀκούω akoúō "I hear", ἤκουσα ḗkousa "I heard". It is sometimes called the "temporal augment" because it increases the time needed to pronounce the vowel.[6]

Modern GreekEdit

Unaccented syllabic augment disappeared during the Byzantine period as a result of the loss of unstressed initial syllables. However, accented syllabic augments have remained in place.[7] So Ancient ἔλυσα, ἐλύσαμεν (élūsa, elū́samen) "I loosened, we loosened" corresponds to Modern έλυσα, λύσαμε (élisa, lísame).[8] The temporal augment has not survived in the vernacular, which leaves the initial vowel unaltered: Ancient ἀγαπῶ, ἠγάπησα (agapô, ēgápēsa) "I love, I loved"; Modern αγαπώ, αγάπησα (agapó, agápisa).

SanskritEdit

The augment is used in Sanskrit to form the imperfect, aorist, pluperfect[a] and conditional. When the verb has a prefix, the augment always sits between the prefix and the root.[10] The following examples of verb forms in the third-person singular illustrate the phenomenon:

√bhū-[b] sam + √bhū-[c]
Present bháv·a·ti sam·bháv·a·ti
Imperfect á·bhav·a·t sam·á·bhav·a·t
Aorist á·bhū·t sam·á·bhū·t
Conditional á·bhav·iṣya·t sam·á·bhav·iṣya·t

When the root starts with any of the vowels i-, u- or , the vowel is subject not to guṇa but vṛddhi.[11][12]

  • icch·á·ti -> aí·cch·a·t
  • urṇó·ti -> aú·rṇo·t
  • ṛdh·nó·ti -> ā́r·dh·no·t

OtherEdit

Constructed languagesEdit

In J. R. R. Tolkien's Quenya, the repetition of the first vowel before the perfect (for instance utúlië, perfect tense of túlë, "come") is reminiscent of the Indo-European augment in both form and function, and is referred to by the same name in Tolkien's grammar of the language.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Or the past perfect. Rare in Vedic and only one or two forms attested in the later language.[9]
  2. ^ 'to be'
  3. ^ 'to be together, be possible, etc'

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Fortson, §5.44.
  2. ^ a b Burrow, pp. 303-304.
  3. ^ Clackson, p. 123.
  4. ^ Andreas Willi (2018) Origins of the Greek verb, Chapter 7 - The Augment, pp. 357-416, Online publication date January 2018, Cambridge University Press, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108164207.008
  5. ^ Herbert Weir Smyth. Greek Grammar. par. 429: syllabic augment.
  6. ^ Smyth. par. 435: temporal augment.
  7. ^ Browning, Robert (1983). Medieval and Modern Greek (p58).
  8. ^ Sophroniou, S.A. Modern Greek. Teach Yourself Books, 1962, Sevenoaks, p79.
  9. ^ Whitney, §817.
  10. ^ Burrow, p. 303.
  11. ^ Burrow, §7.5.
  12. ^ Whitney, §585.
  13. ^ Clackson, James. 1994. The Linguistic Relationship Between Armenian and Greek. London: Publications of the Philological Society, No 30. (and Oxford: Blackwell Publishing)

BibliographyEdit

  • Fortson, Benjamin W. Indo-European Language and Culture (2010 ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-8895-1.
  • Clackson, James (2007). Indo-European Linguistics. Cambridge. ISBN 978-0-521-65313-8.
  • Burrow, T. The Sanskrit Language (2001 ed.). Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-1767-2.
  • Whitney, William Dwight. Sanskrit Grammar (2000 ed.). Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0620-4.