Attur Fort

Attur Fort is a historic fort present in Attur in Salem district in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The fort is located on the banks of river Vashista, 56 km (35 mi) away from Salem.The fort was built by a Palaiyakkarar chieftain Gatti Mudaliar dynasty under Madurai Nayaks, called Lakshmana Nayakan during the 17th century. It was also occupied by Hyder Ali, Tipu Sultan and British during various times. The fort was used by the British as a garrison till 1854, after which the fort was not operational. In modern times, the fort is under the control of the Archaeological Department of the Government of Tamil Nadu. The fort houses two magazine points, two palaces, a court, three treasuries and three temples. Some portions of the fort is dilapidated, while most other portions are encroached by slum dwellers.

Attur Fort
Part of Tamil Nadu
Attur, Tamil Nadu, India
"Arch type of Consructions inside the Fort of Attur".JPG
Attur Fort
Attur Fort is located in Tamil Nadu
Attur Fort
Attur Fort
Coordinates11°36′13″N 78°36′03″E / 11.603529°N 78.600868°E / 11.603529; 78.600868
TypeForts
Site information
Controlled byDepartment of Archaeology
Site history
Built17th century
Built byGatti Mudaliars

HistoryEdit

The walls of the fort

The Fort was constructed by a local Palaiyakkarar chieftain Gatti Mudaliar dynasty under Madurai Nayaks.[1] Attur fort became part of Mysore Kingdom in late 17th century when frequent wars between Mysore Kingdom and Thirumalai Nayak of Madurai when large parts of north west Tamil region from Dindigul became part of Mysore rulers.[2] The region became part of Mysore Wodeyar rulers and later under Hyder Ali of Mysore till 1768, when surrendered to Wood of East India Company. Hyder Ali regained the town from the British East India Company, but the Company won a decisive victory in the 3rd Mysore war was against Tipu Sultan, the son of Hyder Ali.[3] After the Third Mysore War the region became part of Madras Presidency under British. The fort was used by the British as a garrison from 1792 by and the 23rd Madras battalion under the command of captain compbell occupied it. During subsequent years, the fort was used as an ordinance station from 1799 as the Company troops moved to Sankagiri. After 1854, the fort ceased to act as an operational fortress and the region was clubbed into the newly formed Salem District under the Madras Presidency.[2]

In modern times, the fort is under the control of the Archaeological Department of the Government of Tamil Nadu.[4] Some portions of the fort is dilapidated, while most other portions are enchroached by slum dwellers.[5][6][7] In modern times, the fort is maintained by the Archaeological Survey of India.[8]

ArchitectureEdit

 
Attur fort ruins

Attur town is situated on the southern bank of the Vasista river. The town was called Attur Ananthagiri during the Mysore rule in 1689 and was called Attur by end of the 18th century. Attur is located 56 km (35 mi) away from Salem. The four has four entrances on all four directions.[9]

The fort occupies an area of 62 acres (250,000 m2) The walls of the fort are about 30 ft (9.1 m) tall and 15 ft (4.6 m) wide. It is decorated by wedge shaped cut-stones fitted without mortar. The construction material for the walls are believed to be quarried from the Kalladithankundru. The fort was guarded by the river in the east and by moats on other sides. Gatt dynasty used the large chamber inside the fort as audience hall during their regime. The pool house, used for the pleasure of the royal family, was fed from the river through a water gate.[5][10] The trenches in the fort are constructed in such a way that the water from the river fills it from the South side and joins the course downstream. The fort houses two magazine points, two palaces, a court, three treasuries and three temples. The fort also houses the image of a soldier riding a horse, the tombs of Lieutenant Colonel John Murray and the Henry Coyle, Attur Fort Captrain, are located on the back side of the fort.[9]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ B. S. Baligayear. (1967). Madras District Gazetteers: Salem. Superintendent, Government Press. p. 74. ISBN 9785519483643.
  2. ^ a b Vink, Markus (2015). Encounters on the Opposite Coast: The Dutch East India Company and the Nayaka State of Madurai in the Seventeenth Century. BRIL. p. 483. ISBN 9789004272620.
  3. ^ N.S., Ramaswami (1984). Political History of Carnatic Under the Nawabs. Abhinav Publications. p. 207. ISBN 9780836412628.
  4. ^ "List of forts in Chennai circle". Archaeological Survery of India, Chennai circle. Retrieved 10 July 2021.
  5. ^ a b "Attur Historical moments". Attur Municipality. 2011. Archived from the original on 18 August 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
  6. ^ Great Trigonometrical Survey (1891). Synopsis of the Results of the Operations, Volume 25. Columbia University. p. 75.
  7. ^ Fanu, Henry Le (1883). A manual of the Salem district in the presidency of Madras. Oxford University. p. 53. attur fort.
  8. ^ "Alphabetical List of Monuments - Tamil Nadu". Archaeological Survey of India. 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
  9. ^ a b "A walk to soak in the heritage". The Hindu. 17 October 2016. Retrieved 10 July 2021.
  10. ^ "Historic fort". The Hindu. 14 January 2012. Retrieved 7 July 2013.

External linksEdit