Atlantic spiny rat

The Atlantic spiny rats are all found in the genus Trinomys. They are a group of South American spiny-rats in the family Echimyidae.[1][2]

Atlantic spiny-rat
Temporal range: Recent
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Rodentia
Family: Echimyidae
Subfamily: Euryzygomatomyinae
Genus: Trinomys
Thomas, 1921

Trinomys albispinus
Trinomys dimidiatus
Trinomys eliasi
Trinomys gratiosus
Trinomys iheringi
Trinomys mirapitanga
Trinomys moojeni
Trinomys myosuros
Trinomys paratus
Trinomys setosus
Trinomys yonenagae

Extant species of TrinomysEdit

Based on Natureserve.[3]

Trinomys albispinus White-spined Atlantic spiny rat
Trinomys dimidiatus Soft-spined Atlantic spiny rat
Trinomys eliasi Elias's Atlantic spiny rat
Trinomys gratiosus Gracile Atlantic spiny rat
Trinomys iheringi Ihering's Atlantic spiny rat
Trinomys mirapitanga Dark-caped Atlantic spiny rat
Trinomys moojeni Moojen's Atlantic spiny rat
Trinomys myosuros Mouse-tailed Atlantic spiny rat
Trinomys paratus Spiked Atlantic spiny rat
Trinomys setosus Hairy Atlantic spiny rat
Trinomys yonenagae Yonenaga's Atlantic spiny rat

The species of spiny rats in the genus Trinomys are apparently all Brazilian.[3] In particular many of them are endemic to the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil. Not much is known for certain about their ranges however, which still are being investigated, with frequent extensions to the recorded distributions of several species in various ecological classes of forest and dry land. They do not however appear to occur at high altitudes, and several of their ranges appear to be parapatric.[4] Most species of Trinomys are terrestrial and ambulatory, though Trinomys yonenagae is unusual that it is semi-fossorial, living in colonial burrows, and exhibits incipient specializations for saltatorial locomotion.[5]


Genus levelEdit

Trinomys is the sister genus to the fossorial genera Clyomys and Euryzygomatomys. In turn, these three genera — forming the clade of Euryzygomatomyinae — share phylogenetic affinities with a clade containing Carterodon and members of the family Capromyidae.

Cladogram of the Euryzygomatomyinae
with their relationship to Carterodon and Capromyidae.

  Trinomys (Atlantic spiny rats)


  Euryzygomatomys (guiaras)


  Carterodon (Owl's spiny rat)








  Capromys (Desmarest's hutia)

The cladogram has been reconstructed from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA characters.[6][7][8][9][10][11]


  1. ^ Woods, C.A.; Kilpatrick, C.W. (2005). "Genus Trinomys". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  2. ^ Lara, Marcia C.; Patton, James L. (December 2000). "Evolutionary diversification of spiny rats (genus Trinomys, Rodentia: Echimyidae) in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 130 (4): 661–686. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2000.tb02205.x.
  3. ^ a b InfoNatura: Animals and Ecosystems of Latin America [web application]. 2007. Version 5.0 . Arlington, Virginia (USA): NatureServe. Available:
  4. ^ Attias, Nina; Raíces, Daniel S. L.; Pessoa, Flávia S.; Albuquerque, Hermano; Jordão-Nogueira, Tássia; Modesto, Thiago C.; Bergallo, Helena de G. (June 2009). "Potential distribution and new records of Trinomys species (Rodentia: Echimyidae) in the state of Rio de Janeiro". Zoologia. Curitiba. 26 (2): 305–315. doi:10.1590/S1984-46702009000200013.
  5. ^ Rocha, P.L.B.; Renous, S.; Abourachid, A.; Höfling, E. (June 2007). "Evolution toward asymmetrical gaits in Neotropical spiny rats (Rodentia: Echimyidae): evidences favoring adaptation". Canadian Journal of Zoology. 85 (6): 709–717. doi:10.1139/Z07-049.
  6. ^ Galewski, Thomas; Mauffrey, Jean-François; Leite, Yuri L. R.; Patton, James L.; Douzery, Emmanuel J. P. (2005). "Ecomorphological diversification among South American spiny rats (Rodentia; Echimyidae): a phylogenetic and chronological approach". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 34 (3): 601–615. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2004.11.015. PMID 15683932.
  7. ^ Upham, Nathan S.; Patterson, Bruce D. (2012). "Diversification and biogeography of the Neotropical caviomorph lineage Octodontoidea (Rodentia: Hystricognathi)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 63 (2): 417–429. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2012.01.020. PMID 22327013.
  8. ^ Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Galewski, Thomas; Tilak, Marie-ka; Douzery, Emmanuel J. P. (2013-03-01). "Diversification of South American spiny rats (Echimyidae): a multigene phylogenetic approach". Zoologica Scripta. 42 (2): 117–134. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2012.00572.x. S2CID 83639441.
  9. ^ Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Vilstrup, Julia T.; Raghavan, Maanasa; Der Sarkissian, Clio; Willerslev, Eske; Douzery, Emmanuel J. P.; Orlando, Ludovic (2014-07-01). "Rodents of the Caribbean: origin and diversification of hutias unravelled by next-generation museomics". Biology Letters. 10 (7): 20140266. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2014.0266. PMC 4126619. PMID 25115033.
  10. ^ Upham, Nathan S.; Patterson, Bruce D. (2015). "Evolution of Caviomorph rodents: a complete phylogeny and timetree for living genera". In Vassallo, Aldo Ivan; Antenucci, Daniel (eds.). Biology of caviomorph rodents: diversity and evolution. Buenos Aires: SAREM Series A, Mammalogical Research — Sociedad Argentina para el Estudio de los Mamíferos. pp. 63–120.
  11. ^ Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Upham, Nathan S.; Emmons, Louise H.; Justy, Fabienne; Leite, Yuri L. R.; Loss, Ana Carolina; Orlando, Ludovic; Tilak, Marie-Ka; Patterson, Bruce D.; Douzery, Emmanuel J. P. (25 December 2016). "Mitogenomic phylogeny, diversification, and biogeography of South American spiny rats". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 34 (3): 613–633. doi:10.1093/molbev/msw261. PMID 28025278.