Atikah bint Yazid

Atikah bint Yazid (Arabic: عاتكة بنت يزيد) was an Umayyad princess. She was the daughter of Yazid I, and wife of Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan. Some called her the scholar cause she studied islam, especially Hadith. She was also called generous as she gave up all of her money for a poor member of Abu Sufyan's family.[1]

Atikah bint Yazid
عاتكة بنت يزيد
Zawjat al khalifa
Consort of Umayyad caliph
Tenure686 – October 705
PredecessorWallāda bint al-ʿAbbās (Abd al-Maliki's first wife)
SuccessorUmm al-Banin bint Abd al-ʿAziz (Consort of Al-Walid I)
BornDamascus, Umayyad Caliphate
DiedDamascus, Umayyad Caliphate (now Syria)
Burial
Damascus
SpouseAbd al-Malik
Issue
  • Yazid II
  • Marwan al-Asghar ibn Abd al-Malik
  • Mu'awiya ibn Abd al-Malik
  • Umm Kulthum bint Abd al-Malik
Names
Atikah bint Yazid ibn Muawiyah
DynastyUmayyad
FatherYazid I
ReligionIslam

Atikah was the daughter of second Umayyad caliph Yazid. She was the sister of third Umayyad caliph Mu'awiya II. Before Yazid I died, he had the bay'ah made to his son. Mu'awiya II succeeded his father in Damascus in 64 AH (November 683 CE), at an age of somewhere between 17. Her brother died in 684 and he was succeeded by succeeded by her Father-in-law Marwan, he ruled for one year and died in 685. Marwan was succeeded by her husband Abd al-Malik as the fifth Umayyad caliph. She was the influential wife of Abd al-Malik, her elder son was nominated heir of the Caliphate.

By dint of his descent, her son Yazid was a natural candidate for the succession to the caliphate.[2] A noble Arab maternal lineage held political weight during this period in the Caliphate's history,[3] and Yazid took pride in his maternal Sufyanid descent, viewing himself superior to his Marwanid brothers.[4] He was chosen by his paternal half-brother Caliph Sulayman (r. 715–717) as the second-in-line for the caliphate after their first cousin Umar II, who ruled from 717 to 720.[2] Yazid acceded at the age of 29 following the death of Umar II on 9 February 720.[2][5] Yazid II's pedigree united his father's Marwanid branch of the Umayyad dynasty, in power since 684, and the Sufyanid branch of Yazid I and the latter's father Mu'awiya I (r. 661–680), founder of the Umayyad Caliphate.[2]

Atikah, he had his sons Yazid II, Marwan al-Asghar, Mu'awiya and a daughter, Umm Kulthum.[6][7] from her marriage with Abd al-Malik.

However, Atikah was known as she was a relative to twelve Umayyad caliphs out of fourteen[a]. This enabled her to take off her Hijab in front of them. No other known woman that had such number of mahrams between caliphs.[8]

She survived the death of her grandson Al Walid II.[9]

Caliphs related to herEdit

The Caliphs who were related to her are:

No. Caliph Relation
1 Muawiya I Grandfather
2 Yazid I Father
3 Muawiya II Brother
4 Marwan I Father-in-law
5 Abd al-Malik Husband
6 Al-Walid I Step-sons
7 Sulayman[7]
9 Yazid II[2] Son
10 Hisham Step-son
11 Al-Walid II Grandson
12 Yazid III Step-grandsons
13 Ibrahim ibn al-Walid

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The other two were Umar II, and Marwan II, nephews of her husband

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ The Ideal Muslimah. Islamic Books. Retrieved 2015-02-11.
  2. ^ a b c d e Lammens & Blankinship 2002, p. 311.
  3. ^ Wellhausen 1927, p. 312, note 1.
  4. ^ Wellhausen 1927, p. 312.
  5. ^ Powers 1989, p. 105.
  6. ^ Ahmed 2010, p. 118.
  7. ^ a b Hinds 1990, p. 118.
  8. ^ "لحلقة (29) عاتكة بنت يزيد بن معاوية (العالمة السّخيّة (Atikah bint Yazid bin Muwaiyah, The Generous scholar (Arabic))". alssunnah.com. Archived from the original on 2013-06-28. Retrieved 2015-02-11.
  9. ^ "موسوعة شبكة المعرفة الريفية (Atikah bint Yazid bin Muwaiyah (Arabic))". encyc.reefnet.gov.sy. Archived from the original on 2015-02-11. Retrieved 2015-02-11.

BibliographyEdit