Aspasia (/ , , /,; Greek: Ἀσπασία Greek: [aspaˈsiaː]; c. 470–c. 400 BC) was an influential woman in Ancient Greece, who according to Plutarch attracted the most prominent writers and thinkers of the time, including Socrates, to her salon, which became an intellectual centre in Athens. Aspasia was a metic and although she spent most of her adult life in Greece, few details of her life are fully known. Although some accounts credit Aspasia as a distinguished rhetorician and philosopher, there also exist ancient depictions of Aspasia as a brothel keeper and a hetaera. Aspasia is mentioned in the writings of Plato, Aristophanes, Xenophon and others. The hypothetical nature of conclusions reached about Aspasia, based on relatively scant and contradictory information, have led to this range of contradictory portrayals from intellectual luminary to courtesan. For this reason modern scholars express scepticism about the historicity of Aspasia's life, the consensus being that so much is unverifiable, and so little can be known, as to render Aspasia void of much historical reality. Aspasia's role in history provides crucial insight to the understanding of the women of ancient Greece. Very little is known about women from her time period. One scholar stated that, "To ask questions about Aspasia's life is to ask questions about half of humanity."
Origin and early yearsEdit
Aspasia was born in the Ionian Greek city of Miletus (in the modern province of Aydın, Turkey). Little is known about her family except that her father's name was Axiochus, although it is evident that she must have belonged to a wealthy family, for only the well-to-do could have afforded the excellent education that she received. Her name, which means "the desired one," was likely not her given name. Some ancient sources claim that she was a Carian prisoner-of-war turned slave; these statements are generally regarded as false.[a]
It is not known under what circumstances she first traveled to Athens. The discovery of a 4th-century grave inscription that mentions the names of Axiochus and Aspasius has led historian Peter K. Bicknell to attempt a reconstruction of Aspasia's family background and Athenian connections. His theory connects her to Alcibiades II of Scambonidae (grandfather of the famous Alcibiades), who was ostracized from Athens in 460 BC and may have spent his exile in Miletus. Bicknell conjectures that, following his exile, the elder Alcibiades went to Miletus, where he married the daughter of a certain Axiochus. Alcibiades apparently returned to Athens with his new wife and her younger sister, Aspasia. Bicknell argues that the first child of this marriage was named Axiochus (uncle of the famous Alcibiades) and the second Aspasios. He also maintains that Pericles met Aspasia through his close connections with Alcibiades's household. While in Athens, Aspasia may have also had affairs with the philosopher Anaxagoras and the general Jason of Lira.
Life in AthensEdit
According to the disputed statements of the ancient writers and some modern scholars, in Athens Aspasia became a hetaera and ran a brothel.[b] Hetaerae were professional high-class entertainers, as well as courtesans. Besides displaying physical beauty, they differed from most Athenian women in being educated (often to a high standard, as Aspasia evidently was), having independence, and paying taxes. They were the nearest thing perhaps to liberated women; and Aspasia, who became a vivid figure in Athenian society, was probably an obvious example. According to Plutarch, Aspasia was compared to the famous Thargelia, another renowned Ionian hetaera of ancient times.
As a non-Athenian woman, Aspasia was less bound by the traditional restraints that largely confined Athenian wives to their homes, and appears to have taken the opportunity to participate in the public life of the city. She became the companion of the statesman Pericles around 445 BC. After he divorced his first wife (perhaps c. 450 BC), Aspasia began to live with him, although her marital status is disputed.[c] Their son, Pericles the Younger, must have been born by 440 BC. Aspasia would have been quite young at the time of his birth, as she went on to bear another child by Lysicles c. 428 BC.
In social circles, Aspasia was noted for her ability as a conversationalist and adviser rather than merely an object of physical beauty. Plutarch writes that despite her immoral life, friends of Socrates brought their wives to hear her converse.[d]
Personal and judicial attacksEdit
Though they were influential, Pericles, Aspasia and their friends were not immune from attack, as preeminence in democratic Athens was not equivalent to absolute rule. Her relationship with Pericles and her subsequent political influence aroused many reactions. Donald Kagan, a Yale historian, believes that Aspasia was particularly unpopular in the years immediately following the Samian War. In 440 BC, Samos was at war with Miletus over Priene, an ancient city of Ionia in the foothills of Mycale. Worsted in the war, the Milesians came to Athens to plead their case against the Samians. When the Athenians ordered the two sides to stop fighting and submit the case to arbitration at Athens, the Samians refused. In response, Pericles passed a decree dispatching an expedition to Samos. The campaign proved to be difficult and the Athenians had to endure heavy casualties before Samos was defeated. According to Plutarch, it was thought that Aspasia, who came from Miletus, was responsible for the Samian War, and that Pericles had decided against and attacked Samos to gratify her.
According to some later accounts, before the eruption of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), Pericles, some of his closest associates (including the philosopher Anaxagoras and sculptor Phidias) and Aspasia faced a series of personal and legal attacks. Aspasia, in particular, was accused in comedy of corrupting the women of Athens in order to satisfy Pericles' perversions.[e] According to Plutarch, she was put on trial for asebeia (impiety), with the comic poet Hermippus as prosecutor.[f] The historical nature of the accounts about these events is disputed; it is unlikely that a non-Athenian woman could be subject to legal charges of this kind (though her protector or kurios, in this case Pericles, might be), and no harm came to her as a result.
In The Acharnians, Aristophanes blames Aspasia for the Peloponnesian War. He claims that the Megarian decree of Pericles, which excluded Megara from trade with Athens or its allies, was retaliation for prostitutes being kidnapped from the house of Aspasia by Megarians. Aristophanes' portrayal of Aspasia as responsible, from personal motives, for the outbreak of the war with Sparta may reflect memory of the earlier episode involving Miletus and Samos. Plutarch reports also the taunting comments of other comic poets, such as Eupolis and Cratinus. According to Podlecki, Douris appears to have propounded the view that Aspasia instigated both the Samian and Peloponnesian Wars.
Aspasia was labeled the "New Omphale", "Deianira",[g] "Hera"[h] and "Helen".[i] Further attacks on Pericles' relationship with Aspasia are reported by Athenaeus. Even Pericles' own son, Xanthippus, who had political ambitions, readily criticised his father about his domestic affairs.
Later years and deathEdit
In 429 BC, during the Plague of Athens, Pericles witnessed the death of his sister and of both his legitimate sons, Paralus and Xanthippus, from his first wife. With his morale undermined, he burst into tears, and not even Aspasia's companionship could console him. Just before his death, the Athenians allowed a change in the citizenship law of 451 BC that made his half-Athenian son with Aspasia, Pericles the Younger, a citizen and legitimate heir, a decision all the more striking in considering that Pericles himself had proposed the law confining citizenship to those of Athenian parentage on both sides. Pericles died of the plague in the autumn of 429 BC.
Plutarch cites Aeschines Socraticus, who wrote a dialogue on Aspasia (now lost), to the effect that after Pericles's death, Aspasia lived with Lysicles, an Athenian strategos (general) and democratic leader, with whom she had another son; and that she made him the first man at Athens.[a] Lysicles was killed in action on an expedition to levy subsidies from allies in 428 BC. With Lysicles' death the contemporaneous record ends. It is unknown if she was alive when her son, Pericles, was elected general or when he was executed after the Battle of Arginusae. The time of her death that most historians give (c. 401–400 BC) is based on the assessment that Aspasia died before the execution of Socrates in 399 BC, a chronology which is implied in the structure of Aeschines' Aspasia.
References in philosophical worksEdit
Ancient philosophical worksEdit
Aspasia appears in the philosophical writings of Plato, Xenophon, Aeschines Socraticus and Antisthenes. Some scholars argue that Plato was impressed by her intelligence and wit and based his character Diotima in the Symposium on her, while others suggest that Diotima was in fact a historical figure. According to Charles H. Kahn, Professor of Philosophy at the University of Pennsylvania, Diotima is in many respects Plato's response to Aeschines' Aspasia.
In Menexenus, Plato satirizes Aspasia's relationship with Pericles, and quotes Socrates as claiming ironically that she was a trainer of many orators and that since Pericles was educated by Aspasia, he would be superior in rhetoric to someone educated by Antiphon. He also attributes authorship of the Funeral Oration to Aspasia and attacks his contemporaries' veneration of Pericles. Kahn maintains that Plato has taken from Aeschines the motif of Aspasia as teacher of rhetoric for Pericles and Socrates. Plato's Aspasia and Aristophanes' Lysistrata are two apparent exceptions to the rule of women's incapacity as orators, though these fictional characters tell us nothing about the actual status of women in Athens. As Martha L. Rose, Professor of History at Truman State University, explains, "only in comedy do dogs litigate, birds govern, or women declaim".
Xenophon mentions Aspasia twice in his Socratic writings: in Memorabilia and in Oeconomicus. In both cases her advice is recommended to Critobulus by Socrates. In Memorabilia Socrates quotes Aspasia as saying that the matchmaker should report truthfully on the good characteristics of the man. In Oeconomicus Socrates defers to Aspasia as more knowledgeable about household management and the economic partnership between husband and wife.
Aeschines Socraticus and Antisthenes each named a Socratic dialogue after Aspasia (though neither survives except in fragments). Our major sources for Aeschines Socraticus' Aspasia are Athenaeus, Plutarch, and Cicero. In the dialogue, Socrates recommends that Callias send his son Hipponicus to Aspasia for instructions. When Callias recoils at the notion of a female teacher, Socrates notes that Aspasia had favorably influenced Pericles and, after his death, Lysicles. In a section of the dialogue, preserved in Latin by Cicero, Aspasia figures as a "female Socrates", counseling first Xenophon's wife and then Xenophon himself (the Xenophon in question is not the famous historian) about acquiring virtue through self-knowledge. Aeschines presents Aspasia as a teacher and inspirer of excellence, connecting these virtues with her status as hetaira. According to Kahn, every single episode in Aeschines' Aspasia is not only fictitious but incredible.
Of Antisthenes' Aspasia only two or three quotations are extant. This dialogue contains much slander, but also anecdotes pertaining to Pericles' biography. Antisthenes appears to have attacked not only Aspasia, but the entire family of Pericles, including his sons. The philosopher believes that the great statesman chose the life of pleasure over virtue. Thus, Aspasia is presented as the personification of the life of sexual indulgence.
Aspasia appears in several significant works of modern literature. Her romantic attachment with Pericles has inspired some of the most famous novelists and poets of the last centuries. In particular the romanticists of the 19th century and the historical novelists of the 20th century found in their story an inexhaustible source of inspiration. In 1835 Lydia Maria Child, an American abolitionist, novelist, and journalist, published Philothea, a classical romance set in the days of Pericles and Aspasia. This book is regarded as "the most elaborate and successful of the author's productions", in which the female characters, including Aspasia, "are portrayed with great beauty and delicacy."
In 1836, Walter Savage Landor, an English writer and poet, published Pericles and Aspasia, one of his most famous books. Pericles and Aspasia is a rendering of classical Athens through a series of imaginary letters, which contain numerous poems. The letters are frequently unfaithful to actual history but attempt to capture the spirit of the Age of Pericles. Robert Hamerling is another novelist and poet who was inspired by Aspasia's personality. In 1876 he published his novel Aspasia, a book about the manners and morals of the Age of Pericles and a work of cultural and historical interest. Giacomo Leopardi, an Italian poet influenced by the movement of romanticism, published a group of five poems known as the circle of Aspasia. These Leopardi poems were inspired by his painful experience of desperate and unrequited love for a woman named Fanny Targioni Tozzetti. Leopardi called this person Aspasia, after the companion of Pericles.
In 1918, novelist and playwright George Cram Cook produced his first full-length play, The Athenian Women (an adaption of Lysistrata), which portrays Aspasia leading a strike for peace. Cook combined an anti-war theme with a Greek setting. American writer Gertrude Atherton in The Immortal Marriage (1927) treats the story of Pericles and Aspasia and illustrates the period of the Samian War, the Peloponnesian War and the Plague of Athens. Taylor Caldwell's Glory and the Lightning (1974) is another novel that portrays the historical relationship of Aspasia and Pericles.
Fame and assessmentsEdit
Aspasia's name is closely connected with Pericles' glory and fame. Plutarch accepts her as a significant figure both politically and intellectually and expresses his admiration for a woman who "managed as she pleased the foremost men of the state, and afforded the philosophers occasion to discuss her in exalted terms and at great length". The biographer says that Aspasia became so renowned that even Cyrus the Younger, who went to war with the King Artaxerxes II of Persia, gave her name to one of his concubines, who before was called Milto. After Cyrus had fallen in battle, this woman was carried captive to the King and acquired a great influence with him. Lucian calls Aspasia a "model of wisdom", "the admired of the admirable Olympian" and lauds "her political knowledge and insight, her shrewdness and penetration". A Syriac text, according to which Aspasia composed a speech and instructed a man to read it for her in the courts, confirms Aspasia's rhetorical fame. Aspasia is said by the Suda, a 10th-century Byzantine encyclopedia, to have been "clever with regards to words," a sophist, and to have taught rhetoric.
"Next I have to depict Wisdom; and here I shall have occasion for many models, most of them ancient; one comes, like the lady herself, from Ionia. The artists shall be Aeschines and Socrates his master, most realistic of painters, for their heart was in their work. We could choose no better model of wisdom than Milesian Aspasia, the admired of the admirable 'Olympian'; her political knowledge and insight, her shrewdness and penetration, shall all be transferred to our canvas in their perfect measure. Aspasia, however, is only preserved to us in miniature: our proportions must be those of a colossus."
On the basis of such assessments, researchers such as Cheryl Glenn, Professor at the Pennsylvania State University, argue that Aspasia seems to have been the only woman in classical Greece to have distinguished herself in the public sphere and must have influenced Pericles in the composition of his speeches. Some scholars believe that Aspasia opened an academy for young women of good families or even invented the Socratic method. However, Robert W. Wallace, Professor of classics at Northwestern University, underscores that "we cannot accept as historical the joke that Aspasia taught Pericles how to speak and hence was a master rhetorician or philosopher". According to Wallace, the intellectual role Aspasia was given by Plato may have derived from comedy. Roger Just, a classicist and Professor of social anthropology at the University of Kent, believes that Aspasia was an exceptional figure, but her example alone is enough to underline the fact that any woman who was to become the intellectual and social equal of a man would have to be a hetaera. According to Sr. Prudence Allen, a philosopher and seminary professor, Aspasia moved the potential of women to become philosophers one step forward from the poetic inspirations of Sappho.
Aspasia appears in Assassin's Creed Odyssey as the partner of the Athenian statesman Pericles and antagonist as leader of the Cult of Kosmos.
Aspasia is the protagonist in Taylor Caldwell's novel Glory and the Lightning, 1974, Doubleday & Company.
Accuracy of historical sourcesEdit
The main problem remains, as Jona Lendering points out, that most of the things we know about Aspasia are based on mere hypothesis. Thucydides does not mention her; our only sources are the untrustworthy representations and speculations recorded by men in literature and philosophy, who did not care at all about Aspasia as a historical character. Therefore, in the figure of Aspasia, we get a range of contradictory portrayals; she is either a good wife like Theano or some combination of courtesan and prostitute like Thargelia. This is the reason modern scholars express their scepticism about the historicity of Aspasia's life.
According to Wallace, "for us Aspasia herself possesses and can possess almost no historical reality". Hence, Madeleine M. Henry, Professor of Classics at Iowa State University, maintains that "biographical anecdotes that arose in antiquity about Aspasia are wildly colorful, almost completely unverifiable, and still alive and well in the twentieth century". She finally concludes that "it is possible to map only the barest possibilities for [Aspasia's] life". According to Charles W. Fornara and Loren J. Samons II, Professors of Classics and history, "it may well be, for all we know, that the real Aspasia was more than a match for her fictional counterpart".
- According to Debra Nails, Professor of Philosophy at Michigan State University, if Aspasia had not been a free woman, the decree to legitimize her son with Pericles and the later marriage to Lysicles (Nails assumes that Aspasia and Lysicles were married) would almost certainly have been impossible.
- Henry regards as a slander the reports of ancient writers and comic poets that Aspasia was a brothel keeper and a harlot. Henry argues that these comic sallies aimed at ridiculing Athens' leading citizen Pericles, and were based on the fact that, by his own citizenship law, Pericles was prevented from marrying Aspasia and so had to live with her in an unmarried state. For these reasons historian Nicole Loraux questions even the testimony of ancient writers that Aspasia was a hetaera or a courtesan. Fornara and Samons also dismiss the 5th-century tradition that Aspasia was a harlot and managed houses of ill-repute.
- Fornara and Samons take the position that Pericles married Aspasia, but his citizenship law declared her to be an invalid mate. Wallace argues that, in marrying Aspasia, if he married her, Pericles was continuing a distinguished Athenian aristocratic tradition of marrying well-connected foreigners. Henry believes that Pericles was prevented by his own citizenship law from marrying Aspasia and so had to live with her in an unmarried state. On the basis of a comic passage Henry suggests that Aspasia's status was that of a pallake, namely a concubine or de facto unmarried wife. William Smith suggests that Aspasia's relation with Pericles was "analogous to the left-handed marriages of modern princes". Historian Arnold W. Gomme underscores that "his contemporaries spoke of Pericles as married to Aspasia".
- According to Kahn, stories such as Socrates' visits to Aspasia, along with his friends' wives and Lysicles' connection with Aspasia, are not likely to be historical. He believes that Aeschines was indifferent to the historicity of his Athenian stories and that these stories must have been invented at a time when the date of Lysicles' death had been forgotten, but his occupation still remembered.
- Kagan estimates that, if the trial of Aspasia happened, "we have better reason to believe that it happened in 438 than at any other time".
- According to James F. McGlew, Professor at Iowa State University, it is not very likely that the charge against Aspasia was made by Hermippus. He believes that "Plutarch or his sources have confused the law courts and theater".
- Omphale and Deianira were respectively the Lydian queen who owned Heracles as a slave for a year and his long-suffering wife. Athenian dramatists took an interest in Omphale from the middle of the 5th century. The comedians parodied Pericles for resembling a Heracles under the control of an Omphale-like Aspasia. Aspasia was called "Omphale" in the Kheirones of Cratinus or the Philoi of Eupolis.
- Αs wife of the "Olympian" Pericles. Ancient Greek writers call Pericles "Olympian", because he was "thundering and lightning and exciting Greece" and carrying the weapons of Zeus when orating.
- Cratinus (in Dionysalexandros) assimilates Pericles and Aspasia to the "outlaw" figures of Paris and Helen; just as Paris caused a war with Spartan Menelaus over his desire for Helen, so Pericles, influenced by the foreign Aspasia, involved Athens in a war with Sparta. Eupolis also called Aspasia Helen in the Prospaltoi.
- Ondřej Kaše, Thesis Dubletní výslovnost v angličtině ("Alternative Pronunciation in English") in Czech, 2013, p. 28.
- "Aspasia". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
- D. Nails, The People of Plato, Hackett Publishing pp. 58–59
- P. O'Grady, Aspasia of Miletus Archived December 1, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
- A.E. Taylor, Plato: The Man and his Work, 41
- R.W. Wallace, Review of Henry's book
- M. Henry, Prisoner of History, 9
- Salisbury, Joyce (2001). Encyclopedia of women in the ancient world. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1576070921. OCLC 758191338.
- J. Lendering, Aspasia of Miletus livius.org
- P.J. Bicknell, Axiochus Alkibiadou, Aspasia and Aspasios.
- Sue Blundell, Women in Ancient Greece, 1995
- M. Henry, Prisoner of History, 138–139
- N. Loraux, Aspasie, l'étrangère, l'intellectuelle, 133–164
- Fornara-Samons, Athens from Cleisthenes to Pericles, 162–166
- Aristophanes, Acharnians, 523–527
- R. Just, Women in Athenian Law and Life", 144
- "Aspasia". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2002.
- A. Southall, The City in Time and Space, 63
- B. Arkins, Sexuality in Fifth-Century Athens
- Plutarch, Pericles, XXIV
- M. Henry, Prisoner of History, 21
- W. Smith, A History of Greece, 261
- A. W. Gomme, Essays in Greek History & Literature, 104
- M. Ostwald, Athens as a Cultural Center, 310
- P.A. Stadter, A Commentary on Plutarch's Pericles, 239
- C.H. Kahn, Aeschines on Socratic Eros, 96–99
- H. G. Adams, A Cyclopaedia of Female Biography, 75–76
- Fornara-Samons, Athens from Cleisthenes to Pericles, 30
- D. Kagan, The Outbreak of the Peloponnesian War, 197
- Thucydides, I, 115
- Plutarch, Pericles, XXV
- J.F. McGlew, Citizens on Stage, 53
- Plutarch, Pericles, XXXII
- Filonik, Jakub (2013). "Athenian impiety trials: a reappraisal". Dike. 16 (16): 26–33. doi:10.13130/1128-8221/4290.
- A. Powell, The Greek World, 259–261
- A.J. Podlecki, Pericles and his Circle, 126
- P.A. Stadter, A Commentary on Plutarch's Pericles, 240
- Aristophanes, Acharnians, 528–531 and Diodorus, XII, 40
- M. Padilla, "Labor's Love Lost: Ponos and Eros in the Trachiniae" paper presented at the 95th Annual Meeting of the Classical Association of the Middle West and South, Cleveland, Ohio, April 14–17, 1999 Archived March 10, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
- Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae, 533c–d
- Plutarch, Pericles, XXXVI
- Plutarch, Pericles, Plutarch's Lives with an English Translation by. Bernadotte Perrin. Cambridge, MA. Harvard University Press. London. William Heinemann Ltd. 1914. 2 XXXVII
- W. Smith, A History of Greece, 271
- Thucydides, III, Chapter 19 Section 2
- N.G.L Hammond, H.H. Scullard (eds.), The Oxford Classical Dictionary 2nd ed., 131
- K. Wider, "Women philosophers in the Ancient Greek World", 21–62
- I. Sykoutris, Symposium (Introduction and Comments), 152–153
- C.H. Kahn, Plato and the Socratic Dialogue, 26–27
- P. Allen, The Concept of Woman, 29–30
- Plato, Menexenus, 236a
- S. Monoson, Plato's Democratic Entanglements, 182–186
- K. Rothwell, Politics & Persuasion in Aristophanes' Ecclesiazusae, 22
- M.L. Rose, The Staff of Oedipus, 62
- Xenophon, Memorabilia, 2, 6.36
- Xenophon, Oeconomicus, 3.14
- Cicero, De Inventione, I, 51–53
- C.H. Kahn, Plato and the Socratic Dialogue, 34
- Bolansée-Schepens-Theys-Engels, Biographie, 104
- C.H. Kahn, Plato and the Socratic Dialogue, 9
- Duyckinck & Duyckinck, Cyclopaedia of American Literature, 388
- R. MacDonald Alden, Readings in English Prose, 195
- M. Brose, A Companion to European Romanticism, 271
- Judith E. Barlow (2009-10-21), Women Writers of the Provincetown Players: A Collection of Short Works, p. 321, ISBN 9781438427904
- D.D. Anderson, The Literature of the Midwest, 120
- M Noe, "Susan Glaspell's Analysis of the Midwestern Character" Books at Iowa 27 November 1977
- L.A. Tritle, The Peloponnesian War, 199
- K. Paparrigopoulos, Ab, 220
- Lucian, A Portrait Study, XVII
- L. McClure, Spoken like a Woman, 20
- Suda, article Aspasia Archived 2015-09-24 at the Wayback Machine
- C. Glenn, Remapping Rhetorical Territory , 180–199
- C. Glenn, Locating Aspasia on the Rhetorical Map, 23
- Jarratt-Onq, Aspasia: Rhetoric, Gender, and Colonial Ideology, 9–24
- Place Settings. Brooklyn Museum. Retrieved on 2015-08-06.
- Aspasia of Miletus at livius.org
- J.E. Taylor, Jewish Women Philosophers of First-Century Alexandria, 187
- M. Henry, Prisoner of History, 3, 10, 127–128
- Primary sources (Greeks and Romans)
- Aristophanes, Acharnians. original text in Internet Archive
- Athenaeus of Naucratis, Deipnosophistae. Translated by Yonge, C.D. text at University of Wisconsin Digital Collections Center
- Cicero, De Inventione, I. original text Latin Library.
- Diodorus Siculus, Library, XII. original text at Perseus program.
- Lucian, A Portrait-study. from The Works of Lucian of Samosata translated by H.W. Fowler and F.G. Fowler Oxford: The Clarendon Press  at sacred-texts.com
- Plato, Menexenus. Plato in Twelve Volumes, Vol. 9 translated by W.R.M. Lamb. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1925 original text at Perseus program.
- Plutarch, Pericles. original text at Perseus program.
- Thucydides, The Peloponnesian War, I and III. London, J.M. Dent; New York, E.P. Dutton. 1910. In Perseus program
- Xenophon, Memorabilia. Xenophon in Seven Volumes, 4. E.C. Marchant. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA; William Heinemann, Ltd., London. 1923 at Perseus program
- Xenophon, Oeconomicus. Translator: H. G. Dakyns "The Works of Xenophon," at Gutenberg project, Last Updated: January 15, 2013.
- Secondary sources
- Adams, Henry Gardiner, ed. (1857). "Aspasia". A Cyclopaedia of Female Biography. London: Groombridge and Sons.
- Alden, Raymond MacDonald (2005) . "Walter Savage Landor". Readings in English Prose of the Nineteenth Century. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8229-5553-5.
- Allen, Prudence (1997). "The Pluralists: Aspasia". The Concept of Woman: The Aristotelian Revolution, 750 B.C. – A.D. 1250. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8028-4270-1.
- Anderson, D.D. (2001). "The Origins and Development of the Literature of the Midwest". Dictionary of Midwestern Literature: Volume One: The Authors by Philip A Greasley. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-33609-5.
- Arkins, Brian (1994). "Sexuality in Fifth-Century Athens". Classics Ireland. 1: 18–34. doi:10.2307/25528261. JSTOR 25528261. Retrieved 2006-08-29.
- "Aspasia". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2002.
- Bicknell, Peter J. (1982). "Axiochus Alkibiadou, Aspasia and Aspasios" (PDF). L'Antiquité Classique. 51 (3): 240–250. doi:10.3406/antiq.1982.2070.
- Bolansée, Schepens; Theys, Engels (1989). "Antisthenes of Athens". Die Fragmente Der Griechischen Historiker: A. Biography. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-90-04-11094-6.
- Brose, Margaret (2005). "Ugo Foscolo and Giacomo Leopardi: Italy's Classical Romantics". In Ferber, Michael (ed.). A Companion to European Romanticism. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4051-1039-6.
- Duyckinck, E.A.; Duyckinck, G.L. (1856). "Lydia Maria Child". Cyclopaedia of American Literature. II. C. Scribner.
- Samons II, Loren J.; Fornara, Charles W. (1991). Athens from Cleisthenes to Pericles. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
- Glenn, Cheryl (1997). "Locating Aspasia on the Rhetorical Map". Listening to Their Voices. Univ of South Carolina Press. ISBN 978-1-57003-172-4.
- Glenn, Cheryl (1994). "Sex, Lies, and Manuscript: Refiguring Aspasia in the History of Rhetoric". Composition and Communication. 45 (4): 180–199. doi:10.2307/359005. JSTOR 359005.
- Gomme, Arnold W. (1977). "The Position of Women in Athens in the Fifth and Fourth Centuries BC". Essays in Greek History & Literature. Ayer Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8369-0481-9.
- Hammond, N.G.L.; Scullard, H.H., eds. (1970). The Oxford Classical Dictionary (2nd ed.). London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0198691174.
- Henry, Madeleine M. (1995). Prisoner of History. Aspasia of Miletus and her Biographical Tradition. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-508712-3.
- Kagan, Donald (1991). Pericles of Athens and the Birth of Democracy. The Free Press. ISBN 978-0-684-86395-5.
- Kagan, Donald (1989). "Athenian Politics on the Eve of the War". The Outbreak of the Peloponnesian War. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-9556-4.
- Kahn, Charles H. (1997). "Antisthenes". Plato and the Socratic Dialogue. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-64830-1.
- Kahn, Charles H. (1994). "Aeschines on Socratic Eros". In Vander Waerdt, Paul A. (ed.). The Socratic Movement. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-9903-6.
- Just, Roger (1991). "Personal Relationships". Women in Athenian Law and Life. Routledge (UK). ISBN 978-0-415-05841-4.
- Loraux, Nicole (2003). "Aspasie, l'étrangère, l'intellectuelle". La Grèce au Féminin (in French). Belles Lettres. ISBN 978-2-251-38048-3.
- Mazzon, Daniela, Aspasia maestra e amante di Pericle, EdizioniAnordest, 2011 (in Italian) ISBN 9788896742280
- Mazzon, Daniela, Desiderata Aspasia. Rapsodia mediterranea, one-act drama, 2012 (in Italian)
- McClure, Laura (1999). "The City of Words: Speech in the Athenian Polis". Spoken Like a Woman: Speech and Gender in Athenian Drama. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-01730-3.
- McGlew, James F. (2002). "Exposing Hypocrisie: Pericles and Cratinus' Dionysalexandros". Citizens on Stage: Comedy and Political Culture in the Athenian Democracy. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-11285-2.
- Monoson, Sara (2002). "Plato's Opposition to the Veneration of Pericles". Plato's Democratic Entanglements. Hackett Publishing. ISBN 978-0-691-04366-1.
- Nails, Debra (2000). The People of Plato: A Prosopography of Plato and Other Socratics. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-87220-564-2.
- Onq, Rory; Jarratt, Susan (1995). "Aspasia: Rhetoric, Gender, and Colonial Ideology". In Lunsford, Andrea A. (ed.). Reclaiming Rhetorica. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 978-0-7661-9484-7.
- Ostwald, M. (1992). "Athens as a Cultural Center". In Lewis, David M.; Boardman, John; Davies, J.K.; Ostwald, M. (eds.). The Cambridge Ancient History. V. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-23347-7.
- Paparrigopoulos, Konstantinos; Karolidis, Pavlos (1925). History of the Hellenic Nation (Volume Ab) (in Greek). Eleftheroudakis.
- Podlecki, A.J. (1997). Perikles and His Circle. Routledge (UK). ISBN 978-0-415-06794-2.
- Powell, Anton (1995). "Athens' Pretty Face: Anti-feminine Rhetoric and Fifth-century Controversy over the Parthenon". The Greek World. Routledge (UK). ISBN 978-0-415-06031-8.
- Rose, Martha L. (2003). "Demosthenes' Stutter: Overcoming Impairment". The Staff of Oedipus. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-11339-2.
- Rothwell, Kenneth Sprague (1990). "Critical Problems in the Ecclesiazusae". Politics and Persuasion in Aristophanes' Ecclesiazusae. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-90-04-09185-6.
- Smith, William (1855). "Death and Character of Pericles". A History of Greece. R.B. Collins.
- Southall, Aidan (1999). "Greece and Rome". The City in Time and Space. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-78432-0.
- Stadter, Philip A. (1989). A Commentary on Plutarch's Pericles. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-1861-9.
- Sykoutris, Ioannis (1934). Symposium (Introduction and Comments) (in Greek). Estia.
- Taylor, A.E. (2001). "Minor Socratic Dialogues: Hippias Major, Hippias Minor, Ion, Menexenus". Plato: The Man and His Work. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-41605-2.
- Taylor, Joan E. (2004). "Greece and Rome". Jewish Women Philosophers of First-Century Alexandria. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-925961-8.
- Tritle, Lawrence A. (2004). "Annotated Bibliography". The Peloponnesian War. Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-32499-4.
- Wider, Kathleen (1986). "Women philosophers in the Ancient Greek World: Donning the Mantle". Hypatia. 1 (1): 21–62. doi:10.1111/j.1527-2001.1986.tb00521.x.
- Atherton, Gertrude (2004). The Immortal Marriage. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4179-1559-0.
- Becq de Fouquières, Louis (1872). Aspasie de Milet (in French). Didier.
- Cozzi, Cecilia (2014). Aspasia, storia di una donna (in Italian). David and Matthaus. ISBN 978-88-98899-01-2.
- Dover, K.J. (1988). "The Freedom of the Intellectual in Greek Society". Greeks and Their Legacy. New York: Blackwell.
- Hamerling, Louis (1893). Aspasia: a Romance of Art and Love in Ancient Hellas. Geo. Gottsberger Peck.
- Savage Landor, Walter (2004). Pericles And Aspasia. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7661-8958-4.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Aspasia.|
- "Aspasia of Athens". Brainard, Jennifer. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved August 14, 2007.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. .
- "Aspasia". Encyclopædia Romana. Retrieved September 10, 2006.
- Gill, N.S. "Aspasia of Miletus – Prisoner of History, by Madeleine Henry". About.com Education, Book Reviews. Archived from the original on 20 August 2006. Retrieved September 10, 2006.
- "Aspasia of Miletus". Lendering, Jona. Archived from the original on 31 August 2006. Retrieved September 10, 2006.
- "Aspasia of Miletus". O'Grady, Patricia. Archived from the original on December 1, 2006. Retrieved September 10, 2006.
- "Aspasia, from PBS's "The Greeks"". The Greeks: Crucible of Civilization on PBS. Archived from the original on 29 September 2006. Retrieved November 1, 2006.
- Gill, N.S. "Aspasia in Greek Comedy". About Education, Book Reviews. Archived from the original on 17 September 2006. Retrieved September 10, 2006.
- Gill, N.S. "Aspasia, the Ancient Philosopher and Teacher of Athens". About.com Ancient/Classical history. Archived from the original on 23 August 2006. Retrieved September 10, 2006.
- Ratliff, Clancy. "Thoughts on Aspasia and Diotima". Clancy's blog. Archived from the original on 2005-02-26. Retrieved September 10, 2006.