Aplysina fistularis (A. fistularis), also known as the yellow tube sponge or yellow sponge , [1] is a species of sea sponge in the order Verongiida.[2] Aplysina fistularis is a golden or orange-brown color with a conulose surface. The animal is abundant in the Caribbean, where it is commonly found in reefs of open water areas.[1] This sponge was first described by the Prussian zoologist Peter Simon Pallas in 1766.

Aplysina fistularis
Sponge on the sea floor
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Porifera
Class: Demospongiae
Order: Verongiida
Family: Aplysinidae
Genus: Aplysina
A. fistularis
Binomial name
Aplysina fistularis
(Pallas, 1766)
  • Aplysina aggregata Topsent, 1932
  • Spongia fistularis Pallas, 1766
  • Spongia tubaeformis Lamarck, 1814
  • Verongia fistularis (Pallas, 1766)

Description edit

Aplysina fistularis consists of one or more yellow tube-like structures that arise from a closed base and are sessile. The sponge has wide oscula and thin walls with ridged surfaces.[3] Each tube is rarely over 30 centimetres (12 in) in clear water but can reach 50 centimetres (20 in) in turbid-zone reefs. Unlike the related species Aplysina insularis, A. fistularis does not develop rope-like projections around its tubes, although it may show some branching tendrils.[4] A. fistularis does not have a silicate skeletal structure like most sponges, and was used as a bath sponge before the invention of synthetic sponges.[3]

The primary predator of A. fistularis is the hawksbill turtle.[3]

Reproduction edit

Aplysina fistularis can reproduce both sexually and asexually. Asexual reproduction usually occurs only if a piece of the body is broken off. Newly formed sponges require a hard surface to attach to and grow on. If a reef is heavily disturbed, such as being covered by algae or sediment, A. fistularis may struggle to establish itself and grow.[3]

In popular culture edit

In The SpongeBob Musical, the popular animated character SpongeBob SquarePants is revealed to be an Aplysina fistularis.[5]

References edit

  1. ^ a b "Yellow tube sponge (Aplysina fistularis)". Interactive Guide to Caribbean Diving. Marine Species Identification Portal. Retrieved 2012-10-15.
  2. ^ Van Soest RW, Boury-Esnault N, Hooper JN, Rützler K, de Voogd NJ, de Glasby BA, Hajdu E, Pisera AB, Manconi R, Schoenberg C, Janussen D, Tabachnick KR, Klautau M, Picton B, Kelly M, Vacelet J, eds. (2022). "Aplysina fistularis (Pallas, 1766)". World Porifera database. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  3. ^ a b c d "Yellow Tube Sponge". Oceana. Retrieved 2022-12-13.
  4. ^ "Aplysina fistularis". Coralpedia (University of Warwick).
  5. ^ Jarrow, Kyle (June 7, 2016). The SpongeBob Musical (Broadway musical). Tina Landau. French Narrator: This fruit is home to one of the most fascinating sea creatures of all—Aplysina fistularis, the yellow sponge.

External links edit