The Antonine Plague of AD 165 to 180, also known as the Plague of Galen (after Galen, the Greek physician who described it), was the first known pandemic impacting the Roman Empire, possibly contracted and spread by soldiers who were returning from campaign in the Near East. Scholars generally believe the plague was smallpox, although measles has also been suggested, and recent genetic evidence strongly suggests that smallpox only arose much later. In AD 169 the plague may have claimed the life of the Roman emperor Lucius Verus, who was co-regnant with Marcus Aurelius. These two emperors had risen to the throne by virtue of being adopted by the previous emperor, Antoninus Pius, and as a result, their family name, Antoninus, has become associated with the pandemic.
|5–10 million (estimated)|
|Fatality rate||25 percent|
Ancient sources agree that the plague likely appeared during the Roman siege of the Mesopotamian city of Seleucia in the winter of 165–166. Ammianus Marcellinus reported that the plague spread to Gaul and to the legions along the Rhine. Eutropius stated that a large proportion of the empire's population died from this outbreak. According to the contemporary Roman historian Cassius Dio, the disease broke out again 9 years later in 189 AD and caused up to 2,000 deaths a day in the city of Rome, 25% of those who were affected. The total death count has been estimated at 5–10 million, roughly 10% of the population of the empire. The disease was particularly deadly in the cities and in the Roman army.
The Antonine plague occurred during the last years of what is called the Pax Romana, the high point in the influence, territorial control, and population of the Roman Empire. Historians differ in their opinions of the impact of the plague on the empire in the increasingly troubled eras after its appearance.
Economic growth and poor healthEdit
Epidemics were common in the ancient world, but the Antonine plague was the first known pandemic of the Roman Empire. The Antonine plague spread throughout the Roman Empire, and perhaps other areas, including China, and infected many millions of people. The pandemic erupted during the last years of what is often considered the "golden age" of Rome during the reign of co-emperor Marcus Aurelius. The Roman Empire at that time had a population estimated at 75 million people, about one-fourth of all mankind. Historians generally agree that the population of the Roman Empire peaked at about the time that the Antonine Plague appeared and, thereafter, population declined.
The economic prosperity of the Roman Empire notwithstanding, the conditions were propitious for a pandemic. The population was unhealthy. About 20 percent of the population—a large percentage by ancient standards—lived in one of hundreds of cities; Rome, with a population estimated at one million, being the largest. The cities were a "demographic sink" even in the best of times. The death rate exceeded the birth rate and a constant in-migration of new residents was necessary to maintain the urban population. As perhaps more than one-half of children died before reaching adulthood, the average life expectancy at birth was only in the mid-twenties. Dense urban populations and poor sanitation contributed to the dangers of disease. The connectivity by land and sea between the vast territories of the Roman Empire made the transfer of infectious diseases from one region to another easier and more rapid than it was in smaller, more geographically confined societies. Epidemics of infectious diseases in the empire were common, with nine recorded between 43 BCE and 148 CE. The rich were not immune to the unhealthy conditions. Only two of emperor Marcus Aurelius' fourteen children are known to have reached adulthood.
A good indicator of nutrition and the disease burden is the average height of the population. The conclusion of the study of thousands of skeletons is that the average Roman was shorter in stature than the people of pre-Roman societies of Italy and the post-Roman societies of the Middle Ages. The view of historian Kyle Harper is that "not for the last time in history, a precocious leap forward in social development brought biological reverses". Despite increasing development, average height did not increase in Europe between 1000 and 1800, while it increased in the 5th and 6th centuries during late antiquity.
Spread of the diseaseEdit
The traditional Roman view attributed the cause of the Antonine plague to the violation by the Roman army of a temple in the city of Seleucia and carried back to the Roman Empire by soldiers. However, the first documented case of the plague was in Smyrna in 165 where the orator Aelius Aristides almost died from the disease. From the east the plague spread westward reaching Rome in 166 and nearly every corner of the empire by 172. The co-emperor Lucius Verus died from the plague in 169 and it ravaged the Roman army.
The plague endured until about 180 and another epidemic, possibly related, is reported by Dio Cassius to have struck the city of Rome in 189. Two thousand people in the city often died on a single day. Whether this new epidemic, or reoccurrence of the Antonine plague, impacted the empire outside the city of Rome is unknown.
In 166, during the epidemic, the Greek physician and writer Galen traveled from Rome to his home in Asia Minor and returned to Rome in 168, when he was summoned by the two Augusti, the co-emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. He was present at the outbreak among troops stationed at Aquileia in the winter of 168/69. Galen briefly recorded observations and a description of the epidemic in the treatise Methodus Medendi ("Method of Treatment"), and he scattered other references to it among his voluminous writings. He described the plague as "great" and of long duration, and mentioned fever, diarrhea, and pharyngitis as well as a skin eruption, sometimes dry and sometimes pustular, that appeared on the 9th day of the illness. The information that was provided by Galen does not unambiguously identify the nature of the disease, but scholars have generally preferred to diagnose it as smallpox.
The historian William H. McNeill asserts that the Antonine Plague and the later Plague of Cyprian (251–c. 270) were outbreaks of two different diseases, one of smallpox and one of measles but not necessarily in that order. The severe devastation to the European population from the two plagues may indicate that people had no previous exposure to either disease, which brought immunity to survivors. Other historians believe that both outbreaks involved smallpox. The latter view is bolstered by molecular estimates that place the evolution of measles sometime after 1000 AD. However, Galen's description of the Antonine Plague is not completely consistent with smallpox.
Historians differ in their assessment of the impact of the Antonine Plague on Rome. To some, the plague was the beginning of the decline of the Roman Empire. To others, it was a minor event, documented by Galen and other writers but only slightly more deadly than other epidemics which frequently ravaged parts of the empire. Estimates of the fatalities from the pandemic range from 2 to 33% of the Roman Empire's population with deaths between 1.5 and 25 million people. Most estimates coalesce around a fatality rate of about 10% (7.5 million people) of the total population of the empire with death rates of up to 15% in the cities and the army. If the pandemic was indeed smallpox, the number who died would have probably been about 25% of those infected as the survival rate from smallpox is often around 75%, or 3 out of 4 people infected.
The traditional view was expressed by Barthold Georg Niebuhr (1776–1831) who concluded that "as the reign of Marcus Aurelius forms a turning point in so many things, and above all in literature and art, I have no doubt that this crisis was brought about by that plague ... The ancient world never recovered from the blow inflicted on it by the plague which visited it in the reign of Marcus Aurelius." More recently, scholar Kyle Harper said something similar: the pandemic "in any account of Rome's destiny ... merit[s] a place squarely in the forefront." To the contrary, a team of six historians questioned the "extreme" position of Harper and others on this plague as "ignoring scholarship that suggests it had a less than catastrophic outcome," but the historians affirmed that "we do not doubt that disease and climate had some of the impact Harper describes."
Some historians have hypothesized that the epidemic resulted in a surge in the popularity of the cult of Asclepius, the god of medicine; the epigraphic record, however, shows no evidence of such increase in the cult's popularity.
Impact on the Roman armyEdit
The ancient chroniclers portray the plague as a disaster for the Roman army with the army "reduced almost to extinction." This came in 166 at the beginning at the Marcomannic Wars in which Germanic tribes were invading Roman territory south of the middle Danube River in what is now the Czech Republic and Slovakia, and south to Italy. The impact of the plague forced Marcus Aurelius to recruit and train additional soldiers from among "gladiators, slaves, and bandits." After a delay of two years, in 169 the emperor launched an attack against the Germanic tribes. By 171, the Roman army had driven the invaders out of Roman territory. The war would continue sporadically until 180 when Marcus Aurelius died, possibly of the plague. The plague may also have impacted the Germanic tribes.
Indian Ocean trade and Han ChinaEdit
Although Ge Hong was the first writer of traditional Chinese medicine who accurately described the symptoms of smallpox, the historian Rafe de Crespigny mused that the plagues afflicting the Eastern Han Empire during the reigns of Emperor Huan of Han (r. 146–168) and Emperor Ling of Han (r. 168–189) – with outbreaks in 151, 161, 171, 173, 179, 182, and 185 – were perhaps connected to the Antonine plague on the western end of Eurasia. De Crespigny suggests that the plagues led to the rise of the cult faith healing millenarian movement led by Zhang Jue (d. 184), who instigated the disastrous Yellow Turban Rebellion (184–205). He also stated that "it may be only chance" that the outbreak of the Antonine plague in 166 coincides with the Roman embassy of "Daqin" (the Roman Empire) landing in Jiaozhi (northern Vietnam) and visiting the Han court of Emperor Huan, claiming to represent "Andun" (安敦; a transliteration of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus or his predecessor Antoninus Pius).
Raoul McLaughlin wrote that the Roman subjects visiting the Han Chinese court in 166 could have ushered in a new era of Roman Far East trade, but it was a "harbinger of something much more ominous" instead. McLaughlin surmised that the origins of the plague lay in Central Asia, from some unknown and isolated population group, which then spread to the Chinese and the Roman worlds. The plague caused "irreparable" damage to the Roman maritime trade in the Indian Ocean as proven by the archaeological record spanning from Egypt to India as well as significantly decreased Roman commercial activity in Southeast Asia. However, as evidenced by the 3rd-century Periplus of the Erythraean Sea and the 6th-century Christian Topography by Cosmas Indicopleustes, Roman maritime trade into the Indian Ocean, particularly in the silk and spice trades, certainly did not cease but continued until the loss of Egypt to the Muslim Rashidun Caliphate.
- ^ Brooke, John L. (2014). A Global Antiquity, 500 BC–AD 542. Cambridge Core. Cambridget Core. pp. 317–349. doi:10.1017/CBO9781139050814.011. ISBN 9780521871648. Archived from the original on 29 September 2021. Retrieved 12 September 2021.. Downloaded from Cambridge Core.
- ^ Duncan-Jones, Richard (2018). "The Antonine Plague Revisited". ARCTOS: Acta Philologica Fennica. LII: 44.
- ^ Littman, R. J.; Littman, M. L. (1973). "Galen and the Antonine Plague". The American Journal of Philology. 94 (3): 243–255. doi:10.2307/293979. ISSN 0002-9475. JSTOR 293979.
- ^ Cunha, Cheston B.; Cunha, Burke A. (2008), Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel (eds.), "Great Plagues of the Past and Remaining Questions", Paleomicrobiology: Past Human Infections, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 1–20, doi:10.1007/978-3-540-75855-6_1, ISBN 978-3-540-75855-6, PMC 7121113, retrieved 2022-05-11
- ^ "There is not enough evidence satisfactorily to identify the disease or diseases", concluded J. F. Gilliam in his summary (1961) of the written sources, with inconclusive Greek and Latin inscriptions, two groups of papyri and coinage.
- ^ At least one study finds the origin of measles post-dates the plague. See Furuse, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Oshitani, H. (2010). "Origin of the Measles Virus: Divergence from Rinderpest Virus Between the 11th and 12th Centuries". Virology Journal. 7: 52–55. doi:10.1186/1743-422X-7-52. PMC 2838858. PMID 20202190.
- ^ A more recent study finds that measles emerged well before the Antonine Plague. Düx, Ariane; Lequime, Sebastian; Patrono, Livia Victoria; Vrancken, Bram; Boral, Sengül; Gogarten, Jan F.; Hilbig, Antonia; Horst, David; Merkel, Kevin; Prepoint, Baptiste; Santibanez, Sabine (2020-06-19). "Measles virus and rinderpest virus divergence dated to the sixth century BCE". Science. 368 (6497): 1367–1370. doi:10.1126/science.aba9411. ISSN 0036-8075. PMC 7713999. PMID 32554594.
- ^ https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-roman-archaeology/article/smallpoxs-antiquity-in-doubt/B15B505D959E90824B6B9DCFAB1FA124
- ^ Sicker, Martin (2000). "The Struggle over the Euphrates Frontier". The Pre-Islamic Middle East. Greenwood. p. 169. ISBN 0-275-96890-1.
- ^ Eutropius XXXI, 6.24.
- ^ Dio Cassius, LXXII 14.3–4; his book that would cover the plague under Marcus Aurelius is missing; the later outburst was the greatest of which the historian had knowledge.
- ^ "Reactions to Plague in the Ancient & Medieval World". World History Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 2021-04-23. Retrieved 2021-02-06.
- ^ "Past pandemics that ravaged Europe". BBC News. November 7, 2005. Archived from the original on October 7, 2017. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
- ^ Smith, Christine A. (1996). "Plague in the Ancient World". The Student Historical Journal. Archived from the original on 2017-08-06. Retrieved 2008-11-05.
- ^ Harper, Kyle (2015). "Pandemics and passages to late antiquity: rethinking the plague of c.249–270 described by Cyprian". Journal of Roman Archaeology. 28: 223–260. doi:10.1017/S1047759415002470. ISSN 1047-7594. S2CID 162904062.
- ^ Aldrete, Gregory S. "How Did the Golden Age of Rome End". The Great Courses Daily. The Great Courses. Archived from the original on 13 September 2021. Retrieved 10 September 2021.
- ^ Harper, Kyle (2017). The Fate of Rome. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. pp. 10, 30–31, 67–68. ISBN 9780691166834.
- ^ Harper 2017, pp. 67–91.
- ^ Harper 2017, pp. 75–79.
- ^ Koepke, Nikola; Baten, Joerg (1 April 2005). "The biological standard of living in Europe during the last two millennia". European Review of Economic History. 9 (1): 61–95. doi:10.1017/S1361491604001388. hdl:10419/47594. JSTOR 41378413.
- ^ Wasson, Donald L. "Lucius Verus". World History Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 14 September 2021. Retrieved 12 September 2021.
- ^ Harper 2017, pp. 63–64, 99–101, 117.
- ^ Littman, R. J.; Littman, M.L. (Autumn 1973). "Galen and the Antonine Plague". The American Journal of Philology. 94 (3): 243–255. doi:10.2307/293979. JSTOR 293979. PMID 11616517. Downloaded from JSTOR.
- ^ See McLynn, Frank, Marcus Aurelius, Warrior, Philosopher, Emperor, Vintage Books, London, 2009.[page needed]
- ^ McNeill, W.H. 1976 Plagues and Peoples. New York Anchor Press. ISBN 0-385-11256-4[page needed]
- ^ D. Ch. Stathakopoulos Famine and Pestilence in the late Roman and early Byzantine Empire (2007) 95
- ^ Furuse Y, Suzuki A, Oshitani H (2010), "Origin of measles virus: divergence from rinderpest virus between the 11th and 12th centuries.", Virol. J., 7 (52): 52, doi:10.1186/1743-422X-7-52, PMC 2838858, PMID 20202190, S2CID 709881
- ^ Flemming, Rebecca (2018-12-13). "Galen and the Plague". Galen's Treatise Περὶ Ἀλυπίας (De indolentia) in Context: 219–244. doi:10.1163/9789004383302_011. ISBN 9789004383289. Archived from the original on 2021-06-24. Retrieved 2021-06-24.
- ^ Littman & Littman 1973, pp. 253–254.
- ^ Harper 2017, p. 108.
- ^ Niebuhr, Lectures on the history of Rome III, Lecture CXXXI (London 1849), quoted by Gilliam 1961:225
- ^ Harper 2017, p. 26.
- ^ Haldon, John; Elton, Hugh; Huebner, Sabine R.; Izdebski, Adam; Mordechai, Lee; Newfield, Timothy P. "Plagues, climate change, and the end of an empire: A response to Kyle Harper's The Fate of Rome". Researchgate. Archived from the original on 15 September 2021. Retrieved 14 September 2021. DOI: 10.1111/hic3.12508
- ^ Glomb, Tomáš; Kaše, Vojtěch; Heřmánková, Petra (June 2022). "Popularity of the cult of Asclepius in the times of the Antonine Plague: Temporal modeling of epigraphic evidence". Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports. 43: 103466. doi:10.1016/j.jasrep.2022.103466.
- ^ Duncan-Jones, R. P. "The impact of the Antonine plague". Cambridge Core. Cambridge University. Archived from the original on 15 September 2021. Retrieved 14 September 2021.
- ^ Vlach, Marek (2020). "The Antonine Plague and Impact Possibilities During the Marcomannic Wars". In Erdrich, M.; Komoróczy, B.; Madejski, P.; Vlach, M. (eds.). Marcomannic Wars and the Antonine Plague: Selected Essays on Two Disasters That Shook the Roman World. Spisy Archeologického ústavu AV ČR Brno (in English and German). Brno; Lublin: Czech Academy of Sciences, Institute of Archaeology; Instytut Archeologii, Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej. ISBN 9788075240262. OCLC 1268220329. Archived from the original on 15 September 2021. Retrieved 14 September 2021 – via Research Gate.
- ^ de Crespigny, Rafe. (2007). A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms (23–220 AD). Leiden: Koninklijke Brill, p. 514, ISBN 978-90-04-15605-0.
- ^ de Crespigny, Rafe. (2007). A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms (23–220 AD). Leiden: Koninklijke Brill, pp. 514–515, ISBN 978-90-04-15605-0.
- ^ de Crespigny, Rafe. (2007). A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms (23–220 AD). Leiden: Koninklijke Brill, p. 600, ISBN 978-90-04-15605-0.
- ^ See also Pulleyblank, Edwin G. (1999). "The Roman Empire as Known to Han China". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 119 (1): 71–79. doi:10.2307/605541. JSTOR 605541.
- ^ See also: Hill, John E. (2009). Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, First to Second Centuries CE. BookSurge. ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1, p. 27.
- ^ a b Raoul McLaughlin (2010), Rome and the Distant East: Trade Routes to the Ancient Lands of Arabia, India, and China, London & New York: Continuum, ISBN 978-1847252357, p. 59.
- ^ Raoul McLaughlin (2010), Rome and the Distant East: Trade Routes to the Ancient Lands of Arabia, India, and China, London & New York: Continuum, ISBN 978-1847252357, pp. 59–60.
- ^ Yule, Henry (1915). Henri Cordier (ed.), Cathay and the Way Thither: Being a Collection of Medieval Notices of China, Vol I: Preliminary Essay on the Intercourse Between China and the Western Nations Previous to the Discovery of the Cape Route. London: Hakluyt Society, p. 25. Accessed 21 September 2016.
- ^ William H. Schoff (2004) . Lance Jenott (ed.). "'The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First Century' in The Voyage around the Erythraean Sea". Silk Road, Walter Chapin Simpson Center for the Humanities, University of Washington. Archived from the original on 2011-02-24. Retrieved 2016-09-21.
General and cited referencesEdit
- Bruun, Christer, "The Antonine Plague and the 'Third-Century Crisis'", in Olivier Hekster, Gerda de Kleijn, Danielle Slootjes (ed.), Crises and the Roman Empire: Proceedings of the Seventh Workshop of the International Network Impact of Empire, Nijmegen, June 20–24, 2006. Leiden/Boston: Brill, 2007 (Impact of Empire, 7), 201–218.
- de Crespigny, Rafe (2007). A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms (23–220 AD). Leiden: Koninklijke Brill, pp. 514–515, ISBN 978-90-04-15605-0.
- Gilliam, J. F. "The Plague Under Marcus Aurelius". American Journal of Philology 82.3 (July 1961), pp. 225–251.
- Hill, John E. (2009). Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, First to Second Centuries CE. BookSurge. ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1.
- Littman, R.J.; Littman, M.L. (Autumn 1973). "Galen and the Antonine Plague". American Journal of Philology. 94 (3): 243–255. doi:10.2307/293979. JSTOR 293979. PMID 11616517.
- Marcus Aurelius. Meditations IX.2. Translation and Introduction by Maxwell Staniforth, Penguin, New York, 1981.
- McNeill, William H. Plagues and Peoples. Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc., New York, 1976. ISBN 0-385-12122-9.
- Pulleyblank, Edwin G. "The Roman Empire as Known to Han China", Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 119 (1999), pp. 71–79
- Zinsser, Hans. Rats, Lice and History: A Chronicle of Disease, Plagues, and Pestilence (1935). Reprinted by Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers, Inc. in 1996. ISBN 1-884822-47-9.