Duchess Anna Amalia of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel

Anna Amalia of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (24 October 1739 – 10 April 1807), was a German princess and composer.[1] She became the duchess of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, by marriage, and was also regent of the states of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach from 1758 to 1775. She transformed her court and its surrounding into the most influential cultural center of Germany.

Duchess Anna Amalia
Duchess of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
Weimar Anna Amalia Bibliothek@Anna Amalie von Sachsen-Weimar (1).JPG
Duchess consort of Saxe-Weimar
Tenure1756-1758
Duchess consort of Saxe-Eisenach
Tenure1756-1758
Duchess Regent of Saxe-Weimar
Tenure1758-1775
Duchess Regent of Saxe-Eisenach
Tenure1758-1775
Born(1739-10-24)24 October 1739
Wolfenbüttel
Died10 April 1807(1807-04-10) (aged 67)
Weimar
SpouseErnest Augustus II, Duke of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach
IssueKarl August, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
Prince Frederick Ferdinand
HouseHouse of Brunswick-Bevern
House of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
FatherCharles I, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
MotherPrincess Philippine Charlotte of Prussia

FamilyEdit

 
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She was born in Wolfenbüttel, the ninth child of Karl I, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and Princess Philippine Charlotte of Prussia. Her maternal grandparents were Frederick William I of Prussia and Sophia Dorothea of Hanover.

MarriageEdit

In Brunswick on 16 March 1756 she married Ernst August II Konstantin, Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach and they had two sons. Ernst August died in 1758 leaving her regent for their infant son, Karl August.[2]

RegencyEdit

During Karl August's minority she administered the affairs of the duchy with notable prudence, strengthening its resources and improving its position in spite of the troubles of the Seven Years' War. In 1775, with her son having attained his majority, she retired.[2]

Cultural roleEdit

As a patron of the arts, Anna Amalia drew many of the most eminent people in Germany to Weimar, including Johann Gottfried Herder, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Schiller and Abel Seyler's theatrical company.[2] When she succeeded in engaging the Seyler Company, this was "an extremely fortunate coup. The Seyler Company was the best theatre company in Germany at that time."[3] Amalia von Helvig was also later to be a part of her court. She hired Christoph Martin Wieland, a poet and translator of William Shakespeare, to educate her son. She also established the Duchess Anna Amalia Library, which is now home to some 1,000,000 volumes. The duchess was honoured in Goethe's work under the title Zum Andenken der Fürstin Anna-Amalia.

MusicEdit

Anna Amalia was a notable composer who studied studied music with Friedrich Gottlob Fleischer[4] and Ernst Wilhelm Wolf.[5]

Her compositions include:

ChamberEdit

  • Divertimento (clarinet, viola, violoncello, and piano) c. 1780[6]

HarpsichordEdit

OperaEdit

  • Das Jahrmarktsfest zu Plunderweisen (text by Goethe)[1]

OrchestraEdit

  • Oratorio (1768)[6]
  • Sacred Choruses (four voices and orchestra)[1]
  • Symphony (2 oboes, 2 flutes, 2 violins and double bass) 1765[6]

VocalEdit

AncestryEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e Jezic, Diane (1988). Women composers : the lost tradition found. New York: Feminist Press at the City University of New York. ISBN 0-935312-94-3. OCLC 18715963.
  2. ^ a b c   One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Anna Amalia". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 59. This cites F. Bornhak, Anna Amalia Herzogin von Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (Berlin. 1892).
  3. ^ "Herzogin Anna Amalie von Weimar und ihr Theater," in Robert Keil (ed.), Goethe's Tagebuch aus den Jahren 1776–1782, Veit, 1875, p. 69
  4. ^ "Search Results for Anna Amalia | Grove Music Online | Grove Music". Grove Music Online. Retrieved 2021-02-14.
  5. ^ Baker's biographical dictionary of musicians. Nicolas Slonimsky, Laura Diane Kuhn, Nicolas Slonimsky (Centennial ed.). New York: Schirmer Books. 2001. ISBN 0-02-865525-7. OCLC 44972043.CS1 maint: others (link)
  6. ^ a b c ANNA AMALIA von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon, retrieved February 25, 2011
  7. ^ The Norton/Grove dictionary of women composers. Julie Anne Sadie, Rhian Samuel (First ed.). New York. 1994. ISBN 0-393-03487-9. OCLC 33066655.CS1 maint: others (link)
  8. ^ Genealogie ascendante jusqu'au quatrieme degre inclusivement de tous les Rois et Princes de maisons souveraines de l'Europe actuellement vivans [Genealogy up to the fourth degree inclusive of all the Kings and Princes of sovereign houses of Europe currently living] (in French). Bourdeaux: Frederic Guillaume Birnstiel. 1768. p. 52.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit

Duchess Anna Amalia of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Cadet branch of the House of Welf
Born: 24 October 1739 Died: 10 April 1807
German royalty
Vacant
Title last held by
Sophie Charlotte of Brandenburg-Bayreuth
Duchess consort of Saxe-Weimar
16 March 1756 – 28 May 1758
Vacant
Title next held by
Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt
Duchess consort of Saxe-Eisenach
16 March 1756 – 28 May 1758